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Open AccessArticle

In Vivo-In Vitro Comparative Toxicology of Cadmium Sulphide Quantum Dots in the Model Organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae

1
Department of Chemistry, Life Sciences and Environmental Sustainability, University of Parma, 43123 Parma, Italy
2
IMEM-CNR, 43123 Parma, Italy
3
Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per le Scienze Ambientali (CINSA), University of Parma, 43123 Parma, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(4), 512; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9040512
Received: 19 February 2019 / Revised: 21 March 2019 / Accepted: 21 March 2019 / Published: 2 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Quantum Dots)
The aim of this work was to use the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a tool for toxicogenomic studies of Engineered Nanomaterials (ENMs) risk assessment, in particular focusing on cadmium based quantum dots (CdS QDs). This model has been exploited for its peculiar features: a short replication time, growth on both fermentable and oxidizable carbon sources, and for the contextual availability of genome wide information in the form of genetic maps, DNA microarray, and collections of barcoded mutants. The comparison of the whole genome analysis with the microarray experiments (99.9% coverage) and with the phenotypic analysis of 4688 barcoded haploid mutants (80.2% coverage), shed light on the genes involved in the response to CdS QDs, both in vivo and in vitro. The results have clarified the mechanisms involved in the exposure to CdS QDs, and whether these ENMs and Cd2+ exploited different pathways of response, in particular related to oxidative stress and to the maintenance of mitochondrial integrity and function. Saccharomyces cerevisiae remains a versatile and robust alternative for organismal toxicological studies, with a high level of heuristic insights into the toxicology of more complex eukaryotes, including mammals. View Full-Text
Keywords: comparative toxicology; transcriptomics; phenomics; gene ontology; quantum dots comparative toxicology; transcriptomics; phenomics; gene ontology; quantum dots
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pagano, L.; Caldara, M.; Villani, M.; Zappettini, A.; Marmiroli, N.; Marmiroli, M. In Vivo-In Vitro Comparative Toxicology of Cadmium Sulphide Quantum Dots in the Model Organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 512.

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