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Surface Composition and Preparation Method for Oxygen Nanobubbles for Drug Delivery and Ultrasound Imaging Applications

School of Integrative Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 06974, Korea
Department of Bionano Technology, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea
Department of Bionano Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan, Korea
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(1), 48;
Received: 3 December 2018 / Revised: 22 December 2018 / Accepted: 23 December 2018 / Published: 2 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soft, Biological and Composite Nanomaterials)
PDF [3001 KB, uploaded 2 January 2019]


Phospholipids have been widely investigated for the preparation of liposomes, and micro and nanobubbles. They comprise biocompatible and biodegradable molecules and offer simple preparation with a variety of functions in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Phospholipids require emulsifiers and surfactants to assemble in the form of bubbles. These surfactants determine the size, zeta potential, and other characteristics of particles. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and its various derivatives have been employed by researchers to synthesize micro and nanobubbles. The stability of phospholipid-shelled nanobubbles has been reported by various researchers owing to the reduction of surface tension by surfactants in the shell. Nanobubbles have been employed to deliver oxygen to tissues and hypoxic cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of different ratios of phospholipids to PEG on the size, distribution, and characterization of oxygen nanobubbles (ONBs). ONBs were synthesized using a sonication technique. We analyzed and compared the sizes, numbers of generated particles, and zeta potentials of different compositions of ONBs using dynamic light scattering and nanoparticle tracking analysis. Then, we employed these oxygen nanobubbles to enhance the cellular microenvironment and cell viability. ONBs were also investigated for ultrasound imaging. View Full-Text
Keywords: oxygen nanobubbles; phospholipids; polyethylene glycol; ultrasound imaging oxygen nanobubbles; phospholipids; polyethylene glycol; ultrasound imaging

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Khan, M.S.; Hwang, J.; Lee, K.; Choi, Y.; Jang, J.; Kwon, Y.; Hong, J.W.; Choi, J. Surface Composition and Preparation Method for Oxygen Nanobubbles for Drug Delivery and Ultrasound Imaging Applications. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 48.

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