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Nanomaterials 2018, 8(4), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8040211

Diphenylphenoxy-Thiophene-PDI Dimers as Acceptors for OPV Applications with Open Circuit Voltage Approaching 1 Volt

1
Departament d’Enginyeria Electrònica, Elèctrica i Automàtica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Avda. Països Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Spain
2
Área de Química Orgánica, Instituto de Bioingeniería, Universidad Miguel Hernández, Avda. de la Universidad, s/n, 03203 Elche, Spain
3
Institut Català d’Investigació Química, Avda. Països Catalans 16, 43007 Tarragona, Spain
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 March 2018 / Revised: 21 March 2018 / Accepted: 26 March 2018 / Published: 30 March 2018
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Abstract

Two new perylenediimides (PDIs) have been developed for use as electron acceptors in solution-processed bulk heterojunction solar cells. The compounds were designed to exhibit maximal solubility in organic solvents, and reduced aggregation in the solid state. In order to achieve this, diphenylphenoxy groups were used to functionalize a monomeric PDI core, and two PDI dimers were bridged with either one or two thiophene units. In photovoltaic devices prepared using PDI dimers and a monomer in conjunction with PTB7, it was found that the formation of crystalline domains in either the acceptor or donor was completely suppressed. Atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, charge carrier mobility measurements and recombination kinetics studies all suggest that the lack of crystallinity in the active layer induces a significant drop in electron mobility. Significant surface recombination losses associated with a lack of segregation in the material were also identified as a significant loss mechanism. Finally, the monomeric PDI was found to have sub-optimum LUMO energy matching the cathode contact, thus limiting charge carrier extraction. Despite these setbacks, all PDIs produced high open circuit voltages, reaching almost 1 V in one particular case. View Full-Text
Keywords: organic solar cells; photovoltaics; perylenediimide; non-fullerene acceptor; PTB7; bulkheterojunction organic solar cells; photovoltaics; perylenediimide; non-fullerene acceptor; PTB7; bulkheterojunction
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Stenta, C.; Molina, D.; Viterisi, A.; Montero-Rama, M.P.; Pla, S.; Cambarau, W.; Fernández-Lázaro, F.; Palomares, E.; Marsal, L.F.; Sastre-Santos, Á. Diphenylphenoxy-Thiophene-PDI Dimers as Acceptors for OPV Applications with Open Circuit Voltage Approaching 1 Volt. Nanomaterials 2018, 8, 211.

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