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Nanomaterials 2018, 8(3), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8030143

Lipid-Coated Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles as Innovative ROS-Generators for Photodynamic Therapy in Cancer Cells

1
Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin, Italy
2
Center for Sustainable Future Technologies—[email protected], Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento 21, 10129 Turin, Italy
3
Department of Chemistry, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Butenandtstrasse 11E, 81377 Munich, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 February 2018 / Revised: 28 February 2018 / Accepted: 28 February 2018 / Published: 2 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ZnO and TiO2 Based Nanostructures)
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Abstract

In the present paper, we use zinc oxide nanoparticles under the excitation of ultraviolet (UV) light for the generation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), with the aim of further using these species for fighting cancer cells in vitro. Owing to the difficulties in obtaining highly dispersed nanoparticles (NPs) in biological media, we propose their coating with a double-lipidic layer and we evaluate their colloidal stability in comparison to the pristine zinc oxide NPs. Then, using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) coupled with the spin-trapping technique, we demonstrate and characterize the ability of bare and lipid-coated ZnO NPs to generate ROS in water only when remotely actuated via UV light irradiation. Interestingly, our results reveal that the surface chemistry of the NPs greatly influences the type of photo-generated ROS. Finally, we show that lipid-coated ZnO NPs are effectively internalized inside human epithelial carcinoma cells (HeLa) via a lysosomal pathway and that they can generate ROS inside cancer cells, leading to enhanced cell death. The results are promising for the development of ZnO-based therapeutic systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: zinc oxide nanoparticle; supported lipidic bilayer; reactive oxygen species; electron paramagnetic spectroscopy; photodynamic therapy; colloidal stability; 5,5-dimethyl-l-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) zinc oxide nanoparticle; supported lipidic bilayer; reactive oxygen species; electron paramagnetic spectroscopy; photodynamic therapy; colloidal stability; 5,5-dimethyl-l-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Ancona, A.; Dumontel, B.; Garino, N.; Demarco, B.; Chatzitheodoridou, D.; Fazzini, W.; Engelke, H.; Cauda, V. Lipid-Coated Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles as Innovative ROS-Generators for Photodynamic Therapy in Cancer Cells. Nanomaterials 2018, 8, 143.

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