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Open AccessArticle

TiO2, SiO2 and ZrO2 Nanoparticles Synergistically Provoke Cellular Oxidative Damage in Freshwater Microalgae

1
Collaborative Innovation Center of Atmospheric Environment and Equipment Technology, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
2
School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116023, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(2), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8020095
Received: 15 January 2018 / Revised: 1 February 2018 / Accepted: 2 February 2018 / Published: 8 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanosafety 2017)
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PDF [3090 KB, uploaded 8 February 2018]
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Abstract

Metal-based nanoparticles (NPs) are the most widely used engineered nanomaterials. The individual toxicities of metal-based NPs have been plentifully studied. However, the mixture toxicity of multiple NP systems (n ≥ 3) remains much less understood. Herein, the toxicity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs), silicon dioxide (SiO2) NPs and zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) NPs to unicellular freshwater algae Scenedesmus obliquus was investigated individually and in binary and ternary combination. Results show that the ternary combination systems of TiO2, SiO2 and ZrO2 NPs at a mixture concentration of 1 mg/L significantly enhanced mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular reactive oxygen species level in the algae. Moreover, the ternary NP systems remarkably increased the activity of the antioxidant defense enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase, together with an increase in lipid peroxidation products and small molecule metabolites. Furthermore, the observation of superficial structures of S. obliquus revealed obvious oxidative damage induced by the ternary mixtures. Taken together, the ternary NP systems exerted more severe oxidative stress in the algae than the individual and the binary NP systems. Thus, our findings highlight the importance of the assessment of the synergistic toxicity of multi-nanomaterial systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: metal-oxide nanoparticles; mixture toxicity; freshwater algae; cellular response; oxidative damage metal-oxide nanoparticles; mixture toxicity; freshwater algae; cellular response; oxidative damage
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Liu, Y.; Wang, S.; Wang, Z.; Ye, N.; Fang, H.; Wang, D. TiO2, SiO2 and ZrO2 Nanoparticles Synergistically Provoke Cellular Oxidative Damage in Freshwater Microalgae. Nanomaterials 2018, 8, 95.

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