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Nanomaterials 2017, 7(11), 401;

An In Vitro Study of the Photodynamic Effectiveness of GO-Ag Nanocomposites against Human Breast Cancer Cells

Department of Physics, Government College (GC) University, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information and Technology, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
Department of Physics, Government College (GC) University, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
Institute of Fundamental and Frontier Science, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054, China
Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
National Institute of Laser and Optronics, Nilore 45650, Islamabad
Department of Physics, University of Lahore, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
The Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics (CASP), Government College (GC) University, Church Road, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
Industrial Engineering Department, College of Engineering, King Saud University, P.O. Box 800, Riyadh 11421, Saudi Arabia
Department of Chemistry, GC University, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 August 2017 / Revised: 29 September 2017 / Accepted: 4 October 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphene and Nanotube Based Devices)
PDF [3652 KB, uploaded 21 November 2017]


Graphene-based materials have garnered significant attention because of their versatile bioapplications and extraordinary properties. Graphene oxide (GO) is an extremely oxidized form of graphene accompanied by the functional groups of oxygen on its surface. GO is an outstanding platform on which to pacify silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), which gives rise to the graphene oxide-silver nanoparticle (GO-Ag) nanocomposite. In this experimental study, the toxicity of graphene oxide-silver (GO-Ag) nanocomposites was assessed in an in vitro human breast cancer model to optimize the parameters of photodynamic therapy. GO-Ag was prepared using the hydrothermal method, and characterization was done by X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-rays Analysis (EDAX), atomic force microscopy and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The experiments were done both with laser exposure, as well as in darkness, to examine the phototoxicity and cytotoxicity of the nanocomposites. The cytotoxicity of the GO-Ag was confirmed via a methyl-thiazole-tetrazolium (MTT) assay and intracellular reactive oxygen species production analysis. The phototoxic effect explored the dose-dependent decrease in the cell viability, as well as provoked cell death via apoptosis. An enormously significant escalation of 1O2 in the samples when exposed to daylight was perceived. Statistical analysis was performed on the experimental results to confirm the worth and clarity of the results, with p-values < 0.05 selected as significant. These outcomes suggest that GO-Ag nanocomposites could serve as potential candidates for targeted breast cancer therapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: graphene oxide (GO); photodynamic therapy; cytotoxicity; biocompatibility; reactive oxygen species (ROS) graphene oxide (GO); photodynamic therapy; cytotoxicity; biocompatibility; reactive oxygen species (ROS)

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Shaheen, F.; Hammad Aziz, M.; Fakhar-e-Alam, M.; Atif, M.; Fatima, M.; Ahmad, R.; Hanif, A.; Anwar, S.; Zafar, F.; Abbas, G.; Ali, S.M.; Ahmed, M. An In Vitro Study of the Photodynamic Effectiveness of GO-Ag Nanocomposites against Human Breast Cancer Cells. Nanomaterials 2017, 7, 401.

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