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Article

Formation of Thermally Stable, High-Areal-Density, and Small-Diameter Catalyst Nanoparticles via Intermittent Sputtering Deposition for the High-Density Growth of Carbon Nanotubes

1
School of Systems Engineering, Kochi University of Technology, 185 Miyanokuchi, Kami, Kochi 782-8502, Japan
2
National Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu College, 5-20-1 Shii, Kokuraminami-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 802-0985, Japan
3
Center for Nanotechnology, Research Institute, Kochi University of Technology, 185 Miyanokuchi, Kami, Kochi 782-8502, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Christian Mitterer
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(3), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12030365
Received: 15 December 2021 / Revised: 20 January 2022 / Accepted: 21 January 2022 / Published: 24 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art 2D and Carbon Nanomaterials in Japan)
We report the formation of thermally stable catalyst nanoparticles via intermittent sputtering deposition to prevent the agglomeration of the nanoparticles during thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and for the high-density growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The preparation of high-areal-density and small-diameter catalyst nanoparticles on substrates for the high-density growth of CNTs is still a challenging issue because surface diffusion and Ostwald ripening of the nanoparticles induce agglomeration, which results in the low-density growth of large-diameter CNTs during high-temperature thermal CVD. Enhancing the adhesion of nanoparticles or suppressing their diffusion on the substrate to retain a small particle diameter is desirable for the preparation of thermally stable, high-areal-density, and small-diameter catalyst nanoparticles. The intermittent sputtering method was employed to deposit Ni and Fe metal nanoparticles on a substrate for the synthesis of high-areal-density CNTs for Fe nanoparticle catalyst films. The metal particles deposited via intermittent sputtering with an interval time of over 30 s maintained their areal densities and diameters during the thermal CVD process in a vacuum for CNT synthesis. An interval of over 30 s was expected to oxidize the metal particles, which resulted in thermal stability during the CVD process. The intermittent sputtering method is thus a candidate process for the preparation of thermally stable catalyst films for the growth of a high density of long CNTs, which can be combined with the present CNT production process. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbon nanotubes; carbon nanotube forest; thermal CVD; catalyst particles; magnetron sputtering deposition; intermittent sputtering; oxidation; agglomeration; annealing; electric conductance; XRR carbon nanotubes; carbon nanotube forest; thermal CVD; catalyst particles; magnetron sputtering deposition; intermittent sputtering; oxidation; agglomeration; annealing; electric conductance; XRR
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MDPI and ACS Style

Koji, H.; Kusumoto, Y.; Hatta, A.; Furuta, H. Formation of Thermally Stable, High-Areal-Density, and Small-Diameter Catalyst Nanoparticles via Intermittent Sputtering Deposition for the High-Density Growth of Carbon Nanotubes. Nanomaterials 2022, 12, 365. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12030365

AMA Style

Koji H, Kusumoto Y, Hatta A, Furuta H. Formation of Thermally Stable, High-Areal-Density, and Small-Diameter Catalyst Nanoparticles via Intermittent Sputtering Deposition for the High-Density Growth of Carbon Nanotubes. Nanomaterials. 2022; 12(3):365. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12030365

Chicago/Turabian Style

Koji, Hirofumi, Yuji Kusumoto, Akimitsu Hatta, and Hiroshi Furuta. 2022. "Formation of Thermally Stable, High-Areal-Density, and Small-Diameter Catalyst Nanoparticles via Intermittent Sputtering Deposition for the High-Density Growth of Carbon Nanotubes" Nanomaterials 12, no. 3: 365. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12030365

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