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Article

Facile Synthesis of Silane-Modified Mixed Metal Oxide as Catalyst in Transesterification Processes

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Department of Chemical Engineering, Widya Mandala Surabaya Catholic University, Kalijudan 37, Surabaya 60114, Indonesia
2
Graduate Institute of Applied Science and Technology, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 1067, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Deepak Kukkar
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(2), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12020245
Received: 20 November 2021 / Revised: 31 December 2021 / Accepted: 4 January 2022 / Published: 13 January 2022
The fast depletion of fossil fuels has attracted researchers worldwide to explore alternative biofuels, such as biodiesel. In general, the production of biodiesel is carried out via transesterification processes of vegetable oil with the presence of a suitable catalyst. A mixed metal oxide has shown to be a very attractive heterogeneous catalyst with a high performance. Most of the mixed metal oxide is made by using the general wetness impregnation method. A simple route to synthesize silane-modified mixed metal oxide (CaO-CuO/C6) catalysts has been successfully developed. A fluorocarbon surfactant and triblock copolymers (EO)106(PO)70(EO)106 were used to prevent the crystal agglomeration of carbonate salts (CaCO3-CuCO3) as the precursor to form CaO-CuO with a definite size and morphology. The materials show high potency as a catalyst in the transesterification process to produce biodiesel. The calcined co-precipitation product has a high crystallinity form, as confirmed by the XRD analysis. The synthesized catalyst was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX). The mechanism of surface modification and the effects of the catalytic activity were also discussed. The biodiesel purity of the final product was analyzed by gas chromatography. The optimum biodiesel yield was 90.17% using the modified mixed metal oxide CaO-CuO/C6. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrophobic surface modification; mixed metal oxide; biodiesel; transesterification; silanization hydrophobic surface modification; mixed metal oxide; biodiesel; transesterification; silanization
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pranyoto, N.; Dewi Susanti, Y.; Joseph Ondang, I.; Angkawijaya, A.E.; Edi Soetaredjo, F.; Santoso, S.P.; Yuliana, M.; Ismadji, S.; Budi Hartono, S. Facile Synthesis of Silane-Modified Mixed Metal Oxide as Catalyst in Transesterification Processes. Nanomaterials 2022, 12, 245. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12020245

AMA Style

Pranyoto N, Dewi Susanti Y, Joseph Ondang I, Angkawijaya AE, Edi Soetaredjo F, Santoso SP, Yuliana M, Ismadji S, Budi Hartono S. Facile Synthesis of Silane-Modified Mixed Metal Oxide as Catalyst in Transesterification Processes. Nanomaterials. 2022; 12(2):245. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12020245

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pranyoto, Nugroho, Yuni Dewi Susanti, Immanuel Joseph Ondang, Artik Elisa Angkawijaya, Felycia Edi Soetaredjo, Shella Permatasari Santoso, Maria Yuliana, Suryadi Ismadji, and Sandy Budi Hartono. 2022. "Facile Synthesis of Silane-Modified Mixed Metal Oxide as Catalyst in Transesterification Processes" Nanomaterials 12, no. 2: 245. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12020245

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