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Article

Natural Polyphenol-Containing Gels against HSV-1 Infection: A Comparative Study

1
Department of Chemical, Pharmaceutical and Agricultural Sciences, University of Ferrara, I-44121 Ferrara, Italy
2
Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Università Politecnica delle Marche, I-60131 Ancona, Italy
3
Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Ferrara, I-44121 Ferrara, Italy
4
CNRS, Institut Galien Paris-Saclay, Université Paris-Saclay, 92296 Châtenay-Malabry, France
5
Diamond Light Source Ltd., Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Helena P. Felgueiras
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(2), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12020227
Received: 14 December 2021 / Revised: 7 January 2022 / Accepted: 9 January 2022 / Published: 11 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biobased Nanoscale Drug Delivery Systems)
Herpes simplex virus type 1 infection commonly affects many people, causing perioral sores, as well as severe complications including encephalitis in immunocompromised patients. The main pharmacological approach involves synthetic antiviral drugs, among which acyclovir is the golden standard, often leading to resistant virus strains under long-term use. An alternative approach based on antiviral plant-derived compounds, such as quercetin and mangiferin, demonstrated an antiviral potential. In the present study, semisolid forms for cutaneous application of quercetin and mangiferin were designed and evaluated to treat HSV-1 infection. Phosphatidylcholine- and poloxamer-based gels were produced and characterized. Gel physical–chemical aspects were evaluated by rheological measurements and X-ray diffraction, evidencing the different thermoresponsive behaviors and supramolecular organizations of semisolid forms. Quercetin and mangiferin diffusion kinetics were compared in vitro by a Franz cell system, demonstrating the different gel efficacies to restrain the polyphenol diffusion. The capability of gels to control polyphenol antioxidant potential and stability was evaluated, indicating a higher stability and antioxidant activity in the case of quercetin loaded in poloxamer-based gel. Furthermore, a plaque reduction assay, conducted to compare the virucidal effect of quercetin and mangiferin loaded in gels against the HSV-1 KOS strain, demonstrated the suitability of poloxamer-based gel to prolong the polyphenol activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: quercetin; mangiferin; polyphenols; HSV-1; localized drug action; infection control; in vitro diffusion; poloxamer; lecithin; gels quercetin; mangiferin; polyphenols; HSV-1; localized drug action; infection control; in vitro diffusion; poloxamer; lecithin; gels
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sicurella, M.; Sguizzato, M.; Mariani, P.; Pepe, A.; Baldisserotto, A.; Buzzi, R.; Huang, N.; Simelière, F.; Burholt, S.; Marconi, P.; Esposito, E. Natural Polyphenol-Containing Gels against HSV-1 Infection: A Comparative Study. Nanomaterials 2022, 12, 227. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12020227

AMA Style

Sicurella M, Sguizzato M, Mariani P, Pepe A, Baldisserotto A, Buzzi R, Huang N, Simelière F, Burholt S, Marconi P, Esposito E. Natural Polyphenol-Containing Gels against HSV-1 Infection: A Comparative Study. Nanomaterials. 2022; 12(2):227. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12020227

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sicurella, Mariaconcetta, Maddalena Sguizzato, Paolo Mariani, Alessia Pepe, Anna Baldisserotto, Raissa Buzzi, Nicolas Huang, Fanny Simelière, Sam Burholt, Peggy Marconi, and Elisabetta Esposito. 2022. "Natural Polyphenol-Containing Gels against HSV-1 Infection: A Comparative Study" Nanomaterials 12, no. 2: 227. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12020227

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