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Article

Methylglyoxal Adducts Levels in Blood Measured on Dried Spot by Portable Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

1
Laboratory of Genetics and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Pediatrics University Magna Graecia, 98100 Catanzaro, Italy
2
BioNEM Laboratory, Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University “Magna Graecia”, 98100 Catanzaro, Italy
3
Nanotechnology Research Center, Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University “Magna Graecia”, 98100 Catanzaro, Italy
4
Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism IMEM CNR, Parco Area delle Scienze, 43124 Parma, Italy
5
Department of Health Sciences, University “Magna Graecia”, 98100 Catanzaro, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Elena D. Obraztsova
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(9), 2432; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11092432
Received: 11 August 2021 / Revised: 6 September 2021 / Accepted: 10 September 2021 / Published: 18 September 2021
The altered glucose metabolism characterising cancer cells determines an increased amount of methylglyoxal in their secretome. Previous studies have demonstrated that the methylglyoxal, in turn, modifies the protonation state (PS) of soluble proteins contained in the secretomes of cultivated circulating tumour cells (CTCs). In this study, we describe a method to assess the content of methylglyoxal adducts (MAs) in the secretome by near-infrared (NIR) portable handheld spectroscopy and the extreme learning machine (ELM) algorithm. By measuring the vibration absorption functional groups containing hydrogen, such as C-H, O-H and N-H, NIR generates specific spectra. These spectra reflect alterations of the energy frequency of a sample bringing information about its MAs concentration levels. The algorithm deciphers the information encoded in the spectra and yields a quantitative estimate of the concentration of MAs in the sample. This procedure was used for the comparative analysis of different biological fluids extracted from patients suspected of having cancer (secretome, plasma, serum, interstitial fluid and whole blood) measured directly on the solute left on a surface upon a sample-drop cast and evaporation, without any sample pretreatment. Qualitative and quantitative regression models were built and tested to characterise the different levels of MAs by ELM. The final model we selected was able to automatically segregate tumour from non-tumour patients. The method is simple, rapid and repeatable; moreover, it can be integrated in portable electronic devices for point-of-care and remote testing of patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: methylglyoxal adducts; near-infrared spectroscopy; secretome; early cancer detection; point-of-care methylglyoxal adducts; near-infrared spectroscopy; secretome; early cancer detection; point-of-care
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bonapace, G.; Gentile, F.; Coppedé, N.; Coluccio, M.L.; Garo, V.; Vismara, M.F.M.; Candeloro, P.; Donato, G.; Malara, N. Methylglyoxal Adducts Levels in Blood Measured on Dried Spot by Portable Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. Nanomaterials 2021, 11, 2432. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11092432

AMA Style

Bonapace G, Gentile F, Coppedé N, Coluccio ML, Garo V, Vismara MFM, Candeloro P, Donato G, Malara N. Methylglyoxal Adducts Levels in Blood Measured on Dried Spot by Portable Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. Nanomaterials. 2021; 11(9):2432. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11092432

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bonapace, Giuseppe, Francesco Gentile, Nicola Coppedé, Maria L. Coluccio, Virginia Garo, Marco F.M. Vismara, Patrizio Candeloro, Giuseppe Donato, and Natalia Malara. 2021. "Methylglyoxal Adducts Levels in Blood Measured on Dried Spot by Portable Near-Infrared Spectroscopy" Nanomaterials 11, no. 9: 2432. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11092432

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