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Article

Fluorescently Labeled Cellulose Nanofibers for Environmental Health and Safety Studies

1
Department of Chemistry, American University, Washington, DC 20016, USA
2
Materials Science and Engineering Division, Materials Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899, USA
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Department of Environmental Science, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798, USA
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Department of Environmental Health, Center for Nanotechnology and Nanotoxicology, T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA 02115, USA
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Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
6
Vireo Advisors, LLC, Boston, MA 02130, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current affiliation: LAMTEC, Mount Bethel, PA 18343, USA
Academic Editor: Antonios Kelarakis
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(4), 1015; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11041015
Received: 23 February 2021 / Revised: 9 April 2021 / Accepted: 12 April 2021 / Published: 15 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Nanoscience and Nanotechnology)
An optimal methodology for locating and tracking cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) in vitro and in vivo is crucial to evaluate the environmental health and safety properties of these nanomaterials. Here, we report the use of a new boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) reactive fluorescent probe, meso-DichlorotriazineEthyl BODIPY (mDTEB), tailor-made for labeling CNFs used in simulated or in vivo ingestion exposure studies. Time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) was used to confirm covalent attachment and purity of mDTEB-labeled CNFs. The photoluminescence properties of mDTEB-labeled CNFs, characterized using fluorescence spectroscopy, include excellent stability over a wide pH range (pH2 to pH10) and high quantum yield, which provides detection at low (μM) concentrations. FLIM analysis also showed that lignin-like impurities present on the CNF reduce the fluorescence of the mDTEB-labeled CNF, via quenching. Therefore, the chemical composition and the methods of CNF production affect subsequent studies. An in vitro triculture, small intestinal, epithelial model was used to assess the toxicity of ingested mDTEB-labeled CNFs. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were used to assess in vivo environmental toxicity studies. No cytotoxicity was observed for CNFs, or mDTEB-labeled CNFs, either in the triculture cells or in the zebrafish embryos. View Full-Text
Keywords: cellulose nanomaterials; fluorescence; trace labeling; toxicity cellulose nanomaterials; fluorescence; trace labeling; toxicity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Patel, I.; Woodcock, J.; Beams, R.; Stranick, S.J.; Nieuwendaal, R.; Gilman, J.W.; Mulenos, M.R.; Sayes, C.M.; Salari, M.; DeLoid, G.; Demokritou, P.; Harper, B.; Harper, S.; Ong, K.J.; Shatkin, J.A.; Fox, D.M. Fluorescently Labeled Cellulose Nanofibers for Environmental Health and Safety Studies. Nanomaterials 2021, 11, 1015. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11041015

AMA Style

Patel I, Woodcock J, Beams R, Stranick SJ, Nieuwendaal R, Gilman JW, Mulenos MR, Sayes CM, Salari M, DeLoid G, Demokritou P, Harper B, Harper S, Ong KJ, Shatkin JA, Fox DM. Fluorescently Labeled Cellulose Nanofibers for Environmental Health and Safety Studies. Nanomaterials. 2021; 11(4):1015. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11041015

Chicago/Turabian Style

Patel, Ilabahen, Jeremiah Woodcock, Ryan Beams, Stephan J. Stranick, Ryan Nieuwendaal, Jeffrey W. Gilman, Marina R. Mulenos, Christie M. Sayes, Maryam Salari, Glen DeLoid, Philip Demokritou, Bryan Harper, Stacey Harper, Kimberly J. Ong, Jo A. Shatkin, and Douglas M. Fox 2021. "Fluorescently Labeled Cellulose Nanofibers for Environmental Health and Safety Studies" Nanomaterials 11, no. 4: 1015. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11041015

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