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Review

Tailoring Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Efficient Cellular Internalization and Endosomal Escape

1
Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Engineering, Universidad de Los Andes, Carrera 1 No. 18A-12, 111711 Bogotá, Colombia
2
School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5005, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(9), 1816; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10091816
Received: 18 August 2020 / Revised: 5 September 2020 / Accepted: 7 September 2020 / Published: 11 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Nanomaterials)
Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) have been widely explored for biomedical applications due to their high biocompatibility, surface-coating versatility, and superparamagnetic properties. Upon exposure to an external magnetic field, IONs can be precisely directed to a region of interest and serve as exceptional delivery vehicles and cellular markers. However, the design of nanocarriers that achieve an efficient endocytic uptake, escape lysosomal degradation, and perform precise intracellular functions is still a challenge for their application in translational medicine. This review highlights several aspects that mediate the activation of the endosomal pathways, as well as the different properties that govern endosomal escape and nuclear transfection of magnetic IONs. In particular, we review a variety of ION surface modification alternatives that have emerged for facilitating their endocytic uptake and their timely escape from endosomes, with special emphasis on how these can be manipulated for the rational design of cell-penetrating vehicles. Moreover, additional modifications for enhancing nuclear transfection are also included in the design of therapeutic vehicles that must overcome this barrier. Understanding these mechanisms opens new perspectives in the strategic development of vehicles for cell tracking, cell imaging and the targeted intracellular delivery of drugs and gene therapy sequences and vectors. View Full-Text
Keywords: iron oxide nanoparticles; endocytosis; endosomal escape; drug delivery iron oxide nanoparticles; endocytosis; endosomal escape; drug delivery
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rueda-Gensini, L.; Cifuentes, J.; Castellanos, M.C.; Puentes, P.R.; Serna, J.A.; Muñoz-Camargo, C.; Cruz, J.C. Tailoring Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Efficient Cellular Internalization and Endosomal Escape. Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 1816. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10091816

AMA Style

Rueda-Gensini L, Cifuentes J, Castellanos MC, Puentes PR, Serna JA, Muñoz-Camargo C, Cruz JC. Tailoring Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Efficient Cellular Internalization and Endosomal Escape. Nanomaterials. 2020; 10(9):1816. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10091816

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rueda-Gensini, Laura, Javier Cifuentes, Maria C. Castellanos, Paola R. Puentes, Julian A. Serna, Carolina Muñoz-Camargo, and Juan C. Cruz. 2020. "Tailoring Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Efficient Cellular Internalization and Endosomal Escape" Nanomaterials 10, no. 9: 1816. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10091816

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