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Open AccessArticle

Exfoliated Clay Decorated with Magnetic Iron Nanoparticles for Crystal Violet Adsorption: Modeling and Physicochemical Interpretation

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Department of Environmental Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
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Central Metallurgical R & D Institute, Helwan 11421, Cairo, Egypt
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Faculty of Earth Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62511, Egypt
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Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62511, Egypt
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Department of Chemistry, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, Nicosia Cy-1678, Cyprus
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Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw, Poland
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Department of Theoretical Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Chemistry Maria Curie Skłodowska University in Lublin, 20-031 Lublin, Poland
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Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Instituto Tecnológico de Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes 20256, Mexico
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(8), 1454; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10081454
Received: 12 July 2020 / Revised: 18 July 2020 / Accepted: 19 July 2020 / Published: 24 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles for Dye Adsorption)
Surfactant–modified exfoliated Fayum clay (CTAB–EC) obtained after chemical treatment with a CTAB/H2O2 solution was further decorated with magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (MNP). The final nanocomposite (MNP/CTAB–EC) was characterized by XRD, SEM, FTIR, TEM and its adsorptive capability against a model cationic dye, crystal violet (CV), was evaluated. A comparison of the adsorption performance of the raw clay and its modified counterparts using H2O2, CTAB, CTAB/H2O2 or MNP indicated that the adsorption capacity of MNP/CTAB–EC was the highest for CV removal at pH 8.0. The pseudo‒second order for the kinetics and Freundlich model for adsorption equilibrium fitted well the CV removal experimental data at all tested temperatures (25, 40 and 55 °C). The enhancement of the Langmuir adsorption capacity from 447.1 to 499.4 mg g−1 with increasing the temperature from 25 to 55 °C revealed an endothermic nature of the removal process. The interactions between CV and MNP/CTAB–EC were interpreted using advanced statistical physics models (ASPM) in order to elucidate the adsorption mechanism. Multilayer model fitted the adsorption process and therefore, the steric and energetic factors that impacted the CV adsorption were also interpreted using this model. The aggregated number of CV molecules per MNP/CTAB–EC active site ( n ) was more than unity at all temperatures, representing thus a vertical adsorption orientation and a multi‒interactions mechanism. It was determined that the increase of CV uptake with temperature was mainly controlled by the increase of the number of active sites (NM). Calculated adsorption energies (ΔE) revealed that CV removal was an endothermic and a physisorption process (ΔE < 40 kJ mol −1). MNP/CTAB–EC was magnetically separated, regenerated by NaOH, and reused without significant decrease in its adsorption efficiency, supporting a prosperity of its utilization as an effective adsorbent against hazardous dyes from wastewaters. View Full-Text
Keywords: exfoliated clay; magnetic nanoparticles; dye adsorption; statistical modeling; desorption exfoliated clay; magnetic nanoparticles; dye adsorption; statistical modeling; desorption
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MDPI and ACS Style

Barakat, M.A.E.; Kumar, R.; Seliem, M.K.; Selim, A.Q.; Mobarak, M.; Anastopoulos, I.; Giannakoudakis, D.; Barczak, M.; Bonilla-Petriciolet, A.; Mohamed, E.A. Exfoliated Clay Decorated with Magnetic Iron Nanoparticles for Crystal Violet Adsorption: Modeling and Physicochemical Interpretation. Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 1454. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10081454

AMA Style

Barakat MAE, Kumar R, Seliem MK, Selim AQ, Mobarak M, Anastopoulos I, Giannakoudakis D, Barczak M, Bonilla-Petriciolet A, Mohamed EA. Exfoliated Clay Decorated with Magnetic Iron Nanoparticles for Crystal Violet Adsorption: Modeling and Physicochemical Interpretation. Nanomaterials. 2020; 10(8):1454. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10081454

Chicago/Turabian Style

Barakat, Mohamed A.E.; Kumar, Rajeev; Seliem, Moaaz K.; Selim, Ali Q.; Mobarak, Mohamed; Anastopoulos, Ioannis; Giannakoudakis, Dimitrios; Barczak, Mariusz; Bonilla-Petriciolet, Adrián; Mohamed, Essam A. 2020. "Exfoliated Clay Decorated with Magnetic Iron Nanoparticles for Crystal Violet Adsorption: Modeling and Physicochemical Interpretation" Nanomaterials 10, no. 8: 1454. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10081454

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