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Preparation of a Ceramic Matrix Composite Made of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles and Polylactic Acid by Consolidation of Composite Granules

1
Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Science, Sokolowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw, Poland
2
Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Woloska 141, 02-507 Warsaw, Poland
3
Rudolfs Cimdins Riga Biomaterials Innovations and Development Centre of RTU, Institute of General Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Materials Science and Applied Chemistry, Riga Technical University, Pulka Street 3, LV-1007 Riga, Latvia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(6), 1060; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10061060
Received: 31 March 2020 / Revised: 15 May 2020 / Accepted: 15 May 2020 / Published: 30 May 2020
Composites made of a biodegradable polymer, e.g., polylactic acid (PLA) and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HAP NPs) are promising orthopedic materials. There is a particular need for biodegradable hybrid nanocomposites with strong mechanical properties. However, obtaining such composites is challenging, since nanoparticles tend to agglomerate, and it is difficult to achieve good bonding between the hydrophilic ceramic and the hydrophobic polymer. This paper describes a two-step technology for obtaining a ceramic matrix composite. The first step is the preparation of composite granules. The granules are obtained by infiltration of porous granules of HAP NPs with PLA through high-pressure infiltration. The homogeneous ceramic-polymer granules are 80 μm in diameter, and the composite granules are 80 wt% HAP NPs. The second step is consolidation of the granules using high pressure. This is performed in three variants: Uniaxial pressing with the pressure of up to 1000 MPa at room temperature, warm isostatic compaction (75 MPa at 155 °C), and a combination of the two methods. The combined methods result in the highest densification (99%) and strongest mechanical properties; the compressive strength is 374 MPa. The structure of the ceramic matrix composite is homogeneous. Good adhesion between the inorganic and the organic component is observable using scanning electron microscopy. View Full-Text
Keywords: hybrid; biodegradable; composite; hydroxyapatite; polylactid acid hybrid; biodegradable; composite; hydroxyapatite; polylactid acid
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Pietrzykowska, E.; Romelczyk-Baishya, B.; Wojnarowicz, J.; Sokolova, M.; Szlazak, K.; Swieszkowski, W.; Locs, J.; Lojkowski, W. Preparation of a Ceramic Matrix Composite Made of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles and Polylactic Acid by Consolidation of Composite Granules. Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 1060.

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