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Grafting Thin Layered Graphene Oxide onto the Surface of Nonwoven/PVDF-PAA Composite Membrane for Efficient Dye and Macromolecule Separations

1
Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Guishan District, Taoyuan City 333, Taiwan
2
Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, Taishan District, New Taipei City 243, Taiwan
3
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Anle District, Keelung City 204, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(4), 792; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10040792
Received: 5 April 2020 / Revised: 16 April 2020 / Accepted: 16 April 2020 / Published: 20 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Nanocomposite Thin Films and 2D Materials)
This study investigates the permeance and rejection efficiencies of different dyes (Rhodamine B and methyl orange), folic acid and a protein (bovine serum albumin) using graphene oxide composite membrane. The ultrathin separation layer of graphene oxide (thickness of 380 nm) was successfully deposited onto porous polyvinylidene fluoride-polyacrylic acid intermediate layer on nonwoven support layer using vacuum filtration. The graphene oxide addition in the composite membrane caused an increased hydrophilicity and negative surface charge than those of the membrane without graphene oxide. In the filtration process using a graphene oxide composite membrane, the permeance values of pure water, dyes, folic acid and bovine serum albumin molecules were more severely decreased (by two orders of magnitude) than those of the nonwoven/polyvinylidene fluoride-polyacrylic acid composite membrane. However, the rejection efficiency of the graphene oxide composite was significantly improved in cationic Rhodamine B (from 9% to 80.3%) and anionic methyl orange (from 28.3% to 86.6%) feed solutions. The folic acid and bovine serum albumin were nearly completely rejected from solutions using either nonwoven/polyvinylidene fluoride-polyacrylic acid or nonwoven/polyvinylidene fluoride-polyacrylic acid/graphene oxide composite membrane, but the latter possessed anti-fouling property against the protein molecules. The separation mechanism in nonwoven/polyvinylidene fluoride-polyacrylic acid membrane includes the Donnan exclusion effect (for smaller-than-pore-size solutes) and sieving mechanism (for larger solutes). The sieving mechanism governs the filtration behavior in the nonwoven/polyvinylidene fluoride-polyacrylic acid/graphene oxide composite membrane. View Full-Text
Keywords: graphene oxide; composite membrane; permeance; dye rejections; antifouling effects graphene oxide; composite membrane; permeance; dye rejections; antifouling effects
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MDPI and ACS Style

Baskoro, F.; Rajesh Kumar, S.; Jessie Lue, S. Grafting Thin Layered Graphene Oxide onto the Surface of Nonwoven/PVDF-PAA Composite Membrane for Efficient Dye and Macromolecule Separations. Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 792.

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