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Nanomaterials for Periodontal Tissue Engineering: Chitosan-Based Scaffolds. A Systematic Review

1
Department of Medicine and Surgery, Centre of Neuroscience of Milan, University of Milano-Bicocca, 20126 Milan, Italy
2
Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine, University of Bari, 70121 Bari, Italy
3
Department of Morphology, Surgery and Experimental Medicine, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Co-first authorship.
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(4), 605; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10040605 (registering DOI)
Received: 2 February 2020 / Revised: 15 March 2020 / Accepted: 21 March 2020 / Published: 25 March 2020
Introduction. Several biomaterials are used in periodontal tissue engineering in order to obtain a three-dimensional scaffold, which could enhance the oral bone regeneration. These novel biomaterials, when placed in the affected area, activate a cascade of events, inducing regenerative cellular responses, and replacing the missing tissue. Natural and synthetic polymers can be used alone or in combination with other biomaterials, growth factors, and stem cells. Natural-based polymer chitosan is widely used in periodontal tissue engineering. It presents biodegradability, biocompatibility, and biological renewability properties. It is bacteriostatic and nontoxic and has hemostatic and mucoadhesive capacity. The aim of this systematic review is to obtain an updated overview of the utilization and effectiveness of chitosan-based scaffold (CS-bs) in the alveolar bone regeneration process. Materials and Methods. During database searching (using PubMed, Cochrane Library, and CINAHL), 72 items were found. The title, abstract, and full text of each study were carefully analyzed and only 22 articles were selected. Thirteen articles were excluded based on their title, five after reading the abstract, twenty-six after reading the full text, and six were not considered because of their publication date (prior to 2010). Quality assessment and data extraction were performed in the twelve included randomized controlled trials. Data concerning cell proliferation and viability (CPV), mineralization level (M), and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALPA) were recorded from each article Results. All the included trials tested CS-bs that were combined with other biomaterials (such as hydroxyapatite, alginate, polylactic-co-glycolic acid, polycaprolactone), growth factors (basic fibroblast growth factor, bone morphogenetic protein) and/or stem cells (periodontal ligament stem cells, human jaw bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells). Values about the proliferation of cementoblasts (CB) and periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs), the activity of alkaline phosphatase, and the mineralization level determined by pure chitosan scaffolds resulted in lower than those caused by chitosan-based scaffolds combined with other molecules and biomaterials. Conclusions. A higher periodontal regenerative potential was recorded in the case of CS-based scaffolds combined with other polymeric biomaterials and bioceramics (bio compared to those provided by CS alone. Furthermore, literature demonstrated that the addition of growth factors and stem cells to CS-based scaffolds might improve the biological properties of chitosan. View Full-Text
Keywords: chitosan scaffold; periodontal tissue engineering; oral bone regeneration chitosan scaffold; periodontal tissue engineering; oral bone regeneration
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Lauritano, D.; Limongelli, L.; Moreo, G.; Favia, G.; Carinci, F. Nanomaterials for Periodontal Tissue Engineering: Chitosan-Based Scaffolds. A Systematic Review. Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 605.

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