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Open AccessArticle

Green Technology for Remediation of Water Polluted with Petroleum Crude Oil: Using of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms Combined with Magnetic Nanoparticles Capped with Myrrh Resources of Saudi Arabia

1
Chemistry department, college of science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
2
Egyptian petroleum Research institute, Nasr City, Cairo 11435, Egypt
3
Botany and Microbiology department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza 11435, Egypt
4
Faculty of Biotechnology, Modern Science and Arts University, 6th October City 11435, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(2), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10020262
Received: 12 December 2019 / Revised: 8 January 2020 / Accepted: 30 January 2020 / Published: 4 February 2020
Crude oil pollution of water bodies is a worldwide problem that affects water ecosystems and is detrimental to human health and the diversity of living organisms. The objective of this study was to assess the ability of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) combined with the presence of magnetic nanoparticles capped with natural products based on Myrrh to treat fresh water contaminated by crude petroleum oil. Magnetic nanoparticles based on magnetite capped with Myrrh extracts were prepared, characterized, and used to adsorb heavy components of the crude oil. The hydrophobic hexane and ether Myrrh extracts were isolated and used as capping for magnetite nanoparticles. The chemical structures, morphologies, particle sizes, and magnetic characteristics of the magnetic nanoparticles were investigated. The adsorption efficiencies of the magnetic nanoparticles show a greater efficiency to adsorb more than 95% of the heavy crude oil components. Offsets of Water hyacinth were raised in bowls containing Nile River fresh water under open greenhouse conditions, and subjected to varying crude oil contamination treatments of 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 5 mL/L for one month. Plants were harvested and separated into shoots and roots, oven dried at 65 °C, and grounded into powder for further analysis of sulphur and total aromatic and saturated hydrocarbons, as well as individual aromatic constituents. The pigments of chlorophylls and carotenoids were measured spectrophotometrically in fresh plant leaves. The results indicated that the bioaccumulation of sulphur in plant tissues increased with the increased level of oil contamination. Water analysis showed significant reduction in polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The increase of crude oil contamination resulted in a decrease of chlorophylls and carotenoid content of the plant tissues. The results indicate that the water hyacinth can be used for remediation of water slightly polluted by crude petroleum oil. The presence of magnetite nanoparticles capped with Myrrh resources improved the remediation of water highly polluted by petroleum crude oil.
Keywords: magnetite; nanoparticles; myrrh; oil spill; remediation magnetite; nanoparticles; myrrh; oil spill; remediation
MDPI and ACS Style

Atta, A.M.; Mohamed, N.H.; Hegazy, A.K.; Moustafa, Y.M.; Mohamed, R.R.; Safwat, G.; Diab, A.A. Green Technology for Remediation of Water Polluted with Petroleum Crude Oil: Using of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms Combined with Magnetic Nanoparticles Capped with Myrrh Resources of Saudi Arabia. Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 262.

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