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Open AccessArticle

Few Layer Graphene Does Not Affect Cellular Homeostasis of Mouse Macrophages

1
CNRS, UPR3572, Immunology, Immunopathology and Therapeutic Chemistry, University of Strasbourg, ISIS, 67000 Strasbourg, France
2
Instituto Regional de Investigación Científica Aplicada (IRICA), Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Avda Camilo Jose Cela, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain
3
Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Ciencias y Tecnologías Químicas, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(2), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10020228
Received: 18 December 2019 / Revised: 16 January 2020 / Accepted: 17 January 2020 / Published: 28 January 2020
Graphene-related materials (GRMs) are widely used in various applications due to their unique properties. A growing number of reports describe the impact of different carbon nanomaterials, including graphene oxide (GO), reduced GO (rGO), and carbon nanotubes (CNT), on immune cells, but there is still a very limited number of studies on graphene. In this work, we investigated the biological responses of few layer graphene (FLG) on mouse macrophages (bone marrow derived macrophages, BMDMs), which are part of the first line of defense in innate immunity. In particular, our paper describes our findings of short-term FLG treatment in BMDMs with a focus on observing material internalization and changes in general cell morphology. Subsequent investigation of cytotoxicity parameters showed that increasing doses of FLG did not hamper the viability of cells and did not trigger inflammatory responses. Basal level induced autophagic activity sufficed to maintain the cellular homeostasis of FLG treated cells. Our results shed light on the impact of FLG on primary macrophages and show that FLG does not elicit immunological responses leading to cell death. View Full-Text
Keywords: graphene; carbon nanomaterials; autophagy; primary immune cells; bone marrow derived macrophages graphene; carbon nanomaterials; autophagy; primary immune cells; bone marrow derived macrophages
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MDPI and ACS Style

Malanagahalli, S.; Murera, D.; Martín, C.; Lin, H.; Wadier, N.; Dumortier, H.; Vázquez, E.; Bianco, A. Few Layer Graphene Does Not Affect Cellular Homeostasis of Mouse Macrophages. Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 228. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10020228

AMA Style

Malanagahalli S, Murera D, Martín C, Lin H, Wadier N, Dumortier H, Vázquez E, Bianco A. Few Layer Graphene Does Not Affect Cellular Homeostasis of Mouse Macrophages. Nanomaterials. 2020; 10(2):228. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10020228

Chicago/Turabian Style

Malanagahalli, Sowmya; Murera, Diane; Martín, Cristina; Lin, Hazel; Wadier, Nadége; Dumortier, Hélène; Vázquez, Ester; Bianco, Alberto. 2020. "Few Layer Graphene Does Not Affect Cellular Homeostasis of Mouse Macrophages" Nanomaterials 10, no. 2: 228. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10020228

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