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Development of Phosphatized Calcium Carbonate Biominerals as Bioactive Bone Graft Substitute Materials, Part II: Functionalization with Antibacterial Silver Ions

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Institute of Applied Geosciences, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt, Germany
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Department of Biology, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(4), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb9040067
Received: 25 October 2018 / Revised: 15 November 2018 / Accepted: 20 November 2018 / Published: 23 November 2018
Porous calcium phosphate (CaP) materials as bone graft substitutes can be prepared from Ca carbonate biomineral structures by hydrothermal conversion into pseudomorphic CaP scaffolds. The present study aims at furnishing such phosphatized Ca carbonate biomineral (PCCB) materials with antibacterial Ag ions in order to avoid perisurgical wound infections. Prior to this study, PCCB materials with Mg and/or Sr ions incorporated for stimulating bone formation were prepared from coral skeletons and sea urchin spines as starting materials. The porous PCCB materials were treated with aqueous solutions of Ag nitrate with concentrations of 10 or 100 mmol/L, resulting in the formation of Ag phosphate nanoparticles on the sample surfaces through a replacement reaction. The materials were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). In contact with Ringer`s solution, the Ag phosphate nanoparticles dissolved and released Ag ions with concentrations up to 0.51 mg/L, as shown by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) analyses. In tests against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus on agar plates, antibacterial properties were similar for both types of Ag-modified PCCB materials. Concerning the antibacterial performance, the treatment with AgNO3 solutions with 10 mmol/L was almost as effective as with 100 mmol/L. View Full-Text
Keywords: bone graft substitute materials; porous calcium phosphate; coralline hydroxyapatite; phosphatized sea urchin spines; resorbable implant materials; bioactive implant materials; antibacterial properties; magnesium; strontium; silver bone graft substitute materials; porous calcium phosphate; coralline hydroxyapatite; phosphatized sea urchin spines; resorbable implant materials; bioactive implant materials; antibacterial properties; magnesium; strontium; silver
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sethmann, I.; Völkel, S.; Pfeifer, F.; Kleebe, H.-J. Development of Phosphatized Calcium Carbonate Biominerals as Bioactive Bone Graft Substitute Materials, Part II: Functionalization with Antibacterial Silver Ions. J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9, 67.

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