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J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(4), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb9040057

The 3D Printing of Calcium Phosphate with K-Carrageenan under Conditions Permitting the Incorporation of Biological Components—A Method

1
Department of Oral Implantology and Prosthetic Dentistry, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), University of Amsterdam and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Gustav Mahlerlaan 3004, 1081 LA Amsterdam, The Netherlands
2
Department of Oral Cell Biology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), University of Amsterdam and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, Gustav Mahlerlaan 3004, 1081 LA Amsterdam, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 June 2018 / Revised: 6 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 October 2018 / Published: 17 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing of Biomaterials)
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Abstract

Critical-size bone defects are a common clinical problem. The golden standard to treat these defects is autologous bone grafting. Besides the limitations of availability and co-morbidity, autografts have to be manually adapted to fit in the defect, which might result in a sub-optimal fit and impaired healing. Scaffolds with precise dimensions can be created using 3-dimensional (3D) printing, enabling the production of patient-specific, ‘tailor-made’ bone substitutes with an exact fit. Calcium phosphate (CaP) is a popular material for bone tissue engineering due to its biocompatibility, osteoconductivity, and biodegradable properties. To enhance bone formation, a bioactive 3D-printed CaP scaffold can be created by combining the printed CaP scaffold with biological components such as growth factors and cytokines, e.g., vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). However, the 3D-printing of CaP with a biological component is challenging since production techniques often use high temperatures or aggressive chemicals, which hinders/inactivates the bioactivity of the incorporated biological components. Therefore, in our laboratory, we routinely perform extrusion-based 3D-printing with a biological binder at room temperature to create porous scaffolds for bone healing. In this method paper, we describe in detail a 3D-printing procedure for CaP paste with K-carrageenan as a biological binder. View Full-Text
Keywords: three-dimensional-printing; bioactive bone substitute; biological factor; growth factor; K-carrageenan; extrusion-based 3D-printing three-dimensional-printing; bioactive bone substitute; biological factor; growth factor; K-carrageenan; extrusion-based 3D-printing
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Kelder, C.; Bakker, A.D.; Klein-Nulend, J.; Wismeijer, D. The 3D Printing of Calcium Phosphate with K-Carrageenan under Conditions Permitting the Incorporation of Biological Components—A Method. J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9, 57.

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