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The 3D Printing of Calcium Phosphate with K-Carrageenan under Conditions Permitting the Incorporation of Biological Components—A Method

1
Department of Oral Implantology and Prosthetic Dentistry, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), University of Amsterdam and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Gustav Mahlerlaan 3004, 1081 LA Amsterdam, The Netherlands
2
Department of Oral Cell Biology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), University of Amsterdam and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, Gustav Mahlerlaan 3004, 1081 LA Amsterdam, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(4), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb9040057
Received: 13 June 2018 / Revised: 6 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 October 2018 / Published: 17 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing of Biomaterials)
Critical-size bone defects are a common clinical problem. The golden standard to treat these defects is autologous bone grafting. Besides the limitations of availability and co-morbidity, autografts have to be manually adapted to fit in the defect, which might result in a sub-optimal fit and impaired healing. Scaffolds with precise dimensions can be created using 3-dimensional (3D) printing, enabling the production of patient-specific, ‘tailor-made’ bone substitutes with an exact fit. Calcium phosphate (CaP) is a popular material for bone tissue engineering due to its biocompatibility, osteoconductivity, and biodegradable properties. To enhance bone formation, a bioactive 3D-printed CaP scaffold can be created by combining the printed CaP scaffold with biological components such as growth factors and cytokines, e.g., vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). However, the 3D-printing of CaP with a biological component is challenging since production techniques often use high temperatures or aggressive chemicals, which hinders/inactivates the bioactivity of the incorporated biological components. Therefore, in our laboratory, we routinely perform extrusion-based 3D-printing with a biological binder at room temperature to create porous scaffolds for bone healing. In this method paper, we describe in detail a 3D-printing procedure for CaP paste with K-carrageenan as a biological binder. View Full-Text
Keywords: three-dimensional-printing; bioactive bone substitute; biological factor; growth factor; K-carrageenan; extrusion-based 3D-printing three-dimensional-printing; bioactive bone substitute; biological factor; growth factor; K-carrageenan; extrusion-based 3D-printing
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Kelder, C.; Bakker, A.D.; Klein-Nulend, J.; Wismeijer, D. The 3D Printing of Calcium Phosphate with K-Carrageenan under Conditions Permitting the Incorporation of Biological Components—A Method. J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9, 57.

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