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J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(3), 21;

Experimental Investigation of Magnetic Nanoparticle-Enhanced Microwave Hyperthermia

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kansas State University, 3078 Engineering Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
Department of Chemistry, Kansas State University, 213 CBC Building, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Francesco Puoci
Received: 8 May 2017 / Revised: 7 June 2017 / Accepted: 12 June 2017 / Published: 22 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Nanoparticle Design for Medical Diagnosis and Therapy)
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The objective of this study was to evaluate microwave heating enhancements offered by iron/iron oxide nanoparticles dispersed within tissue-mimicking media for improving efficacy of microwave thermal therapy. The following dopamine-coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were considered: 10 and 20 nm diameter spherical core/shell Fe/Fe3O4, 20 nm edge-length cubic Fe3O4, and 45 nm edge-length/10 nm height hexagonal Fe3O4. Microwave heating enhancements were experimentally measured with MNPs dissolved in an agar phantom, placed within a rectangular waveguide. Effects of MNP concentration (2.5–20 mg/mL) and microwave frequency (2.0, 2.45 and 2.6 GHz) were evaluated. Further tests with 10 and 20 nm diameter spherical MNPs dispersed within a two-compartment tissue-mimicking phantom were performed with an interstitial dipole antenna radiating 15 W power at 2.45 GHz. Microwave heating of 5 mg/mL MNP-agar phantom mixtures with 10 and 20 nm spherical, and hexagonal MNPs in a waveguide yielded heating rates of 0.78 ± 0.02 °C/s, 0.72 ± 0.01 °C/s and 0.51 ± 0.03 °C/s, respectively, compared to 0.5 ± 0.1 °C/s for control. Greater heating enhancements were observed at 2.0 GHz compared to 2.45 and 2.6 GHz. Heating experiments in two-compartment phantoms with an interstitial dipole antenna demonstrated potential for extending the radial extent of therapeutic heating with 10 and 20 nm diameter spherical MNPs, compared to homogeneous phantoms (i.e., without MNPs). Of the MNPs considered in this study, spherical Fe/Fe3O4 nanoparticles offer the greatest heating enhancement when exposed to microwave radiation. These nanoparticles show strong potential for enhancing the rate of heating and radial extent of heating during microwave hyperthermia and ablation procedures. View Full-Text
Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles; microwave hyperthermia; microwave ablation; nanoparticle-enhanced thermal therapy magnetic nanoparticles; microwave hyperthermia; microwave ablation; nanoparticle-enhanced thermal therapy

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McWilliams, B.T.; Wang, H.; Binns, V.J.; Curto, S.; Bossmann, S.H.; Prakash, P. Experimental Investigation of Magnetic Nanoparticle-Enhanced Microwave Hyperthermia. J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8, 21.

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