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Open AccessFeature PaperCommunication
J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8(2), 13;

Patient Education for Endoscopic Sinus Surgery: Preliminary Experience Using 3D-Printed Clinical Imaging Data

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, South Bend, IN 46556, USA
Michiana Sleep Solutions and Allied ENT Speciality Center, South Bend, IN 46635, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Francesco Puoci
Received: 5 October 2016 / Revised: 15 March 2017 / Accepted: 23 March 2017 / Published: 7 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Journal of Functional Biomaterials: Feature Papers 2016)
Full-Text   |   PDF [360 KB, uploaded 7 April 2017]   |  


Within the Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) medical space, a relatively small fraction of patients follow through with elective surgeries to fix ailments such as a deviated septum or occluded sinus passage. Patient understanding of their diagnosis and treatment plan is integral to compliance, which ultimately yields improved medical outcomes and better quality of life. Here we report the usage of advanced, polyjet 3D printing methods to develop a multimaterial replica of human nasal sinus anatomy, derived from clinical X-ray computed tomography (CT) data, to be used as an educational aid during physician consultation. The final patient education model was developed over several iterations to optimize material properties, anatomical accuracy and overall display. A two-arm, single-center, randomized, prospective study was then performed in which 50 ENT surgical candidates (and an associated control group, n = 50) were given an explanation of their anatomy, disease state, and treatment options using the education model as an aid. Statistically significant improvements in patient ratings of their physician’s explanation of their treatment options (p = 0.020), self-rated anatomical understanding (p = 0.043), self-rated understanding of disease state (p = 0.016), and effectiveness of the visualization (p = 0.007) were noted from the population that viewed the 3D education model, indicating it is an effective tool which ENT surgeons may use to educate and interact with patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3D printing; sinonasal anatomy; clinical education; ENT 3D printing; sinonasal anatomy; clinical education; ENT

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Sander, I.M.; Liepert, T.T.; Doney, E.L.; Leevy, W.M.; Liepert, D.R. Patient Education for Endoscopic Sinus Surgery: Preliminary Experience Using 3D-Printed Clinical Imaging Data. J. Funct. Biomater. 2017, 8, 13.

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