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Gadolinium-Labelled Cell Scaffolds to Follow-up Cell Transplantation by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

1
Department of Science and Technologic Innovation, Università del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”, Viale T. Michel 11, I-15121 Alessandria, Italy
2
Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Health Science & Center for Molecular Imaging, University of Turin, Via Nizza 52, 10126 Torino, Italy
3
Institute for Biostructures and Bioimages (CNR) c/o Molecular Biotechnology Center Via Nizza 52, 10126 Torino, Italy
4
Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, Via Nizza 52, 10126 Torino, Italy
5
Institute of Technical Sciences of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Knez Mihailova 35/IV, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current affiliation: Technology Transfer and Industrial Liaison Department, Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
J. Funct. Biomater. 2019, 10(3), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb10030028
Received: 11 June 2019 / Revised: 24 June 2019 / Accepted: 26 June 2019 / Published: 2 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Imaging of Biomaterials)
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Abstract

Cell scaffolds are often used in cell transplantation as they provide a solid structural support to implanted cells and can be bioengineered to mimic the native extracellular matrix. Gadolinium fluoride nanoparticles (Gd-NPs) as a contrast agent for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) were incorporated into poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/chitosan scaffolds to obtain Imaging Labelled Cell Scaffolds (ILCSs), having the shape of hollow spherical/ellipsoidal particles (200–600 μm diameter and 50–80 μm shell thickness). While Gd-NPs incorporated into microparticles do not provide any contrast enhancement in T1-weighted (T1w) MR images, ILCSs can release Gd-NPs in a controlled manner, thus activating MRI contrast. ILCSs seeded with human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) were xenografted subcutaneously into either immunocompromised and immunocompetent mice without any immunosuppressant treatments, and the transplants were followed-up in vivo by MRI for 18 days. Immunocompromised mice showed a progressive activation of MRI contrast within the implants due to the release of Gd-NPs in the extracellular matrix. Instead, immunocompetent mice showed poor activation of MRI contrast due to the encapsulation of ILCSs within fibrotic capsules and to the scavenging of released Gd-NPs by phagocytic cells. In conclusion, the MRI follow-up of cell xenografts can report the host cell response to the xenograft. However, it does not strictly report on the viability of transplanted hMSCs. View Full-Text
Keywords: cell scaffold; graft transplantation; gadolinium; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; biomaterial; human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSC); immune response cell scaffold; graft transplantation; gadolinium; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; biomaterial; human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSC); immune response
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Catanzaro, V.; Digilio, G.; Capuana, F.; Padovan, S.; Cutrin, J.C.; Carniato, F.; Porta, S.; Grange, C.; Filipović, N.; Stevanović, M. Gadolinium-Labelled Cell Scaffolds to Follow-up Cell Transplantation by Magnetic Resonance Imaging. J. Funct. Biomater. 2019, 10, 28.

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