# Analysing Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM-LS) with Bayesian Item Response Models

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Bayesian IRT Models

#### 2.1. Bayesian IRT Models for Binary Data

#### 2.2. IRT Models as Regression Models

#### 2.3. Model Priors and Identification

## 3. Analysis of the SPM-LS Data

#### 3.1. Model Estimation

`response2`) coded as either correct (

`1`) or incorrect (

`0`) as well as

`person`and

`item`identifiers. Following the principal of building models bottom-up, I start with the estimation of the most simple sensible model, that is, the 1PL model. When both person and item parameters are modeled hierarchically, the brms formula for the 1PL model can be specified as

`response2 ~ 0 + item + (1 | person)`instead (see the code on Github for more details). For a thorough introduction and discussion of the brms formula syntax, see Bürkner (2017, 2018, 2019). As displayed in Figure 1, item parameter estimates of all methods are very similar for the 1PL model. In addition, their uncertainty estimates align closely as well. The brms formula for the 2PL model looks as follows:

`family`argument, we now use

`link = "identity"`instead of

`link = "logit"`and build the logit link directly into the formula via

`inv_logit(beta + exp(logalpha) * theta)`. This is necessary to correctly include guessing parameters (Bürkner 2019). As displayed in Figure 3, item parameter estimates of all methods are still quite similar when it comes to locations and slopes of the 3PL model. However, guessing parameter estimates are quite different: ML obtains point estimates of 0 for all but three items with uncertainty intervals ranging the whole definition space from 0 to 1. This is caused by an artifact in the computation of the approximate standard errors because point estimates are located at the boundary of the parameter space at which maximum likelihood theory does not hold. In contrast, point estimates of guessing parameters as obtained by all regularized models are close to but not exactly zero for most items and corresponding uncertainty estimates appear more realistic (i.e., much narrower) than those obtained by pure ML.

#### 3.2. Model Comparison

## 4. Discussion

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 4.**Comparison of 3PL person parameters: (Left) scatter plot of point estimates; and (Right) scatter plot of the associated 95% uncertainty interval widths (UIW).

**Figure 6.**Item-specific posterior distributions of log-likelihood differences between predicted and observed responses for the 1PL model estimated via MCMC-H. If the majority of the posterior distribution is above zero, this indicates model misfit for the given item.

**Figure 7.**Item-specific posterior distributions of log-likelihood differences between predicted and observed responses for the 3PL model estimated via MCMC-H. If the majority of the posterior distribution is above zero, this indicates model misfit for the given item.

**Figure 8.**Person-specific posterior distributions of log-likelihood differences between predicted and observed responses for the 192nd person and different models estimated via MCMC-H. If the majority of the posterior distribution is above zero, this indicates model misfit for the given person.

**Figure 9.**Scatter plots, bivariate correlations, and marginal densities of person parameters from MCMC-NH and ML models.

Model | ELPD | SE(ELPD) | ELPD-Difference | SE(ELPD-Difference) |
---|---|---|---|---|

4PL | −2544.7 | 42.6 | 0.0 | 0.0 |

3PL | −2547.8 | 42.8 | −3.1 | 5.1 |

2PL | −2588.7 | 42.9 | −44.0 | 9.5 |

1PL | −2655.0 | 43.8 | −110.3 | 15.0 |

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Bürkner, P.-C.
Analysing Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM-LS) with Bayesian Item Response Models. *J. Intell.* **2020**, *8*, 5.
https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence8010005

**AMA Style**

Bürkner P-C.
Analysing Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM-LS) with Bayesian Item Response Models. *Journal of Intelligence*. 2020; 8(1):5.
https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence8010005

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Bürkner, Paul-Christian.
2020. "Analysing Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM-LS) with Bayesian Item Response Models" *Journal of Intelligence* 8, no. 1: 5.
https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence8010005