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Computation 2018, 6(4), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/computation6040051

Can Combined Electrostatic and Polarization Effects Alone Explain the F···F Negative-Negative Bonding in Simple Fluoro-Substituted Benzene Derivatives? A First-Principles Perspective

1
Department of Chemical System Engineering, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan
2
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568, Japan
3
Molecular Sciences Institute, School of Chemistry, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 9 September 2018 / Accepted: 17 September 2018 / Published: 20 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Computational Chemistry)
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Abstract

The divergence of fluorine-based systems and significance of their nascent non-covalent chemistry in molecular assemblies are presented in a brief review of the field. Emphasis has been placed to show that type-I and -II halogen-centered F···F long-ranged intermolecular distances viable between the entirely negative fluorine atoms in some fluoro-substituted dimers of C6H6 can be regarded as the consequence of significant non-covalent attractive interactions. Such attractive interactions observed in the solid-state structures of C6F6 and other similar fluorine-substituted aromatic compounds have frequently been underappreciated. While these are often ascribed to crystal packing effects, we show using first-principles level calculations that these are much more fundamental in nature. The stability and reliability of these interactions are supported by their negative binding energies that emerge from a supermolecular procedure using MP2 (second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory), and from the Symmetry Adapted Perturbation Theory, in which the latter does not determine the interaction energy by computing the total energy of the monomers or dimer. Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules and Reduced Density Gradient Non-Covalent Index charge-density-based approaches confirm the F···F contacts are a consequence of attraction by their unified bond path (and bond critical point) and isosurface charge density topologies, respectively. These interactions can be explained neither by the so-called molecular electrostatic surface potential (MESP) model approach that often demonstrates attraction between sites of opposite electrostatic surface potential by means of Coulomb’s law of electrostatics, nor purely by the effect of electrostatic polarization. We provide evidence against the standalone use of this approach and the overlooking of other approaches, as the former does not allow for the calculation of the electrostatic potential on the surfaces of the overlapping atoms on the monomers as in the equilibrium geometry of a complex. This study thus provides unequivocal evidence of the limitation of the MESP approach for its use in gaining insight into the nature of reactivity of overlapped interacting atoms and the intermolecular interactions involved. View Full-Text
Keywords: fluorine-centered noncovalent interaction; attraction between negative sites; type-I and -II bonding topologies; ab initio calculations; RDG and QTAIM characterizations; EDA and MESP analyses; dispersion and polarization fluorine-centered noncovalent interaction; attraction between negative sites; type-I and -II bonding topologies; ab initio calculations; RDG and QTAIM characterizations; EDA and MESP analyses; dispersion and polarization
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Varadwaj, P.R.; Varadwaj, A.; Marques, H.M.; Yamashita, K. Can Combined Electrostatic and Polarization Effects Alone Explain the F···F Negative-Negative Bonding in Simple Fluoro-Substituted Benzene Derivatives? A First-Principles Perspective. Computation 2018, 6, 51.

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