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Creating Competitive Opponents for Serious Games through Dynamic Difficulty Adjustment

Games, Interaction, Learning Technologies, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, 4200-072 Porto, Portugal
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Information 2020, 11(3), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/info11030156
Received: 12 February 2020 / Revised: 2 March 2020 / Accepted: 11 March 2020 / Published: 14 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Mobile Gaming and Games-based Leaning)
Competition is a basic element of our society. It drives us to rise above previously perceived limitations, increases our engagement and makes the world more interesting. Competition rewards our existing skills and prompts us to identify and improve our weaker skills. In games, player engagement is achieved, at least in part, by providing him/her with competition at the right amount of difficulty. Achieving and maintaining this exact level of challenge is one of the most difficult tasks for a game designer. The use of Dynamic Difficulty Adjustment techniques allows the game to dynamically adjust the challenge according to player performance, therefore keeping him/her always on edge, immersed and fully active. New information can then be more easily acquired, which is especially important in Serious Games. This paper describes how DDA techniques were used to create two strategic, goal-oriented computer-controlled (CC) players in order to deliver a higher level of competitiveness for the user in [email protected], a Serious Game aimed at developing entrepreneurship skills. As a result, the strength of the computer controlled player increased by more than 100%. By developing a good strategy for the AI and using DDA the game includes now a powerful opponent which has increased the engagement level of the player. View Full-Text
Keywords: serious games; artificial intelligence; dynamic difficulty adjustment; flow zone; entrepreneurship serious games; artificial intelligence; dynamic difficulty adjustment; flow zone; entrepreneurship
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Kristan, D.; Bessa, P.; Costa, R.; Vaz de Carvalho, C. Creating Competitive Opponents for Serious Games through Dynamic Difficulty Adjustment. Information 2020, 11, 156.

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