Botnets have carved a niche in contemporary networking and cybersecurity due to the impact of their operations. The botnet threat continues to evolve and adapt to countermeasures as the security landscape continues to shift. As research efforts attempt to seek a deeper and robust understanding of the nature of the threat for more effective solutions, it becomes necessary to again traverse the threat landscape, and consolidate what is known so far about botnets, that future research directions could be more easily visualised. This research uses the general exploratory approach of the qualitative methodology to survey the current botnet threat landscape: Covering the typology of botnets and their owners, the structure and lifecycle of botnets, botnet attack modes and control architectures, existing countermeasure solutions and limitations, as well as the prospects of a botnet threat. The product is a consolidation of knowledge pertaining the nature of the botnet threat; which also informs future research directions into aspects of the threat landscape where work still needs to be done.
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