Transitioning to Sustainable Healthcare: Decarbonising Healthcare Clinics, a Literature Review
2. Materials and Methods
- Core electronic databases (ProQuest, Scopus)
- The Curtin Library Catalogue
- Google Scholar (example: healthcare AND sustainability AND Australia returned 43,000 results since 2010) (health business AND sustainability AND Australia AND footprint returned 160 results since 2010)
- Articles in English
- Articles from 2010 onwards
- Priority given to Australian examples/case studies if many are found.
- Core electronic databases (Connected Papers, ProQuest, Espace, Trove, Annual Reviews, Scopus, and Web of Science for sustainability research)
- The Curtin Library Catalogue
- Google Scholar
- Health industry governing bodies, e.g., Australian Medical Association (AMA), etc
- NGO publications/reports including United Nations, Green and Healthy Hospitals (GGHH), Climate and Health Alliance (CAHA), etc.
- Does the supplier have ISO 140001 accreditation? This is the international standard for having an environmental management system for the company. Accreditation indicates that the company approaches environmental issues seriously and that the environment need not be sacrificed for financial gain 
- Does the company publicise its sustainability targets or measures and/or have strong performance in relation to sustainability, and emissions, water, waste and energy reduction?
- Does the supplier have a strong reputation and performance on other ethical/CSR issues?
- Is the supplier local or Indigenous/community based?
- Does the companies supply chain adhere to The Modern Slavery Act 2018?
Conflicts of Interest
Appendix A. Evidence-Based Recommendations or Guide to Assist Healthcare Clinics to Decarbonise
- Sachs, J.D.; Kroll, C.; Lafortune, G.; Fuller, G.; Woelm, F. Sustainable Development Report 2021; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK, 2021. [Google Scholar]
- Karliner, J.; Slotterback, S.; Boyd, R.; Ashby, B.; Steele, K. Health Care’s Climate Footprint; Health Care Without Harm and ARUP: London, UK, 2019. [Google Scholar]
- Ebi, K.; Campbell-Lendrum, D.; Wyns, A. The 1.5 Health Report. 2018. Available online: http://climate.mohp.gov.np/downloads/The_1.5_health_Report.pdf (accessed on 2 February 2022).
- Karliner, J.; Slotterback, S.; Boyd, R.; Ashby, B.; Steele, K.; Wang, J. Health care’s climate footprint: The health sector contribution and opportunities for action. Eur. J. Public Health 2020, 30 (Suppl. S5), ckaa165-843. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Malik, A.; Lenzen, M.; McAlister, S.; McGain, F. The carbon footprint of Australian health care. Lancet Planet. Health 2018, 2, e27–e35. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Climate and Health Alliance CAHA. Healthy, Regenerative and Just, Framework for a National Strategy on Climate, Health and Well-being for Australia; Climate and Health Alliance: Melbourne, Australia, 2021. [Google Scholar]
- Salas, R.N.; Maibach, E.; Pencheon, D.; Watts, N.; Frumkin, H. A pathway to net zero emissions for healthcare. BMJ 2020, 371, m3785. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Romanello, M.; McGushin, A.; Di Napoli, C.; Drummond, P.; Hughes, N.; Jamart, L.; Kennard, H.; Lampard, P.; Rodriguez, B.S.; Arnell, N. The 2021 report of the Lancet Countdown on health and climate change: Code red for a healthy future. Lancet 2021, 398, 1619–1662. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Atwoli, L.; Baqui, A.H.; Benfield, T.; Bosurgi, R.; Godlee, F.; Hancocks, S.; Horton, R.; Laybourn-Langton, L.; Monteiro, C.A.; Norman, I. Call for emergency action to limit global temperature increases, restore biodiversity, and protect health: Wealthy nations must do much more, much faster. Nutr. Rev. 2021, 79, 1183–1185. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Australia DftE. Net Zero Carbon Emissions: Responsibilities, Pathways and Opportunities for Australia’s Healthcare Sector; Doctors for the Environment Australia: Melbourne, Australia, 2020. [Google Scholar]
- Lewis, T.M.A. Becoming a Climate-Friendly Hospital: Implications for Nursing Practice within the Australian Healthcare Context. 2018. Available online: https://ro.uow.edu.au/theses1/275/ (accessed on 23 January 2022).
- Watts, N.; Amann, M.; Arnell, N.; Ayeb-Karlsson, S.; Belesova, K.; Berry, H.; Bouley, T.; Boykoff, M.; Byass, P.; Cai, W. The 2018 report of the Lancet Countdown on health and climate change: Shaping the health of nations for centuries to come. Lancet 2018, 392, 2479–2514. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Eckelman, M.J.; Sherman, J.D.; MacNeill, A.J. Life cycle environmental emissions and health damages from the Canadian healthcare system: An economic-environmental-epidemiological analysis. PLoS Med. 2018, 15, e1002623. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Fathy, R.; Nelson, C.A.; Barbieri, J.S. Combating climate change in the clinic: Cost-effective strategies to decrease the carbon footprint of outpatient dermatologic practice. Int. J. Women’s Dermatol. 2021, 7, 107. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- WHO. WHO Guidance for Climate Resilient and Environmentally Sustainable Health Care Facilities; Report No.: 9240012222; World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2020. [Google Scholar]
- WHO. Health Systems: WHO Europe. 2022. Available online: https://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/Health-systems (accessed on 27 March 2022).
- Franklin, A.; Blyton, P. Researching Sustainability: A Guide to Social Science Methods, Practice and Engagement; Routledge: London, UK, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- McKee, A. Textual analysis. In The Media & Communications in Australia; Routledge: London, UK, 2020; pp. 31–42. [Google Scholar]
- Kyngäs, H. Qualitative Research and Content Analysis. In The Application of Content Analysis in Nursing Science Research; Springer: Geneva, Switzerland, 2020; pp. 3–11. [Google Scholar]
- WHO. Compendium of WHO and Other UN Guidance on Health and Environment; World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2021. [Google Scholar]
- IPCC; Rogelj, J.; Shindell, D.; Jiang, K.; Fifita, S.; Forster, P.; Ginzburg, V.; Handa, C.; Kheshgi, H.; Kobayashi, S.; et al. Summary for Policymakers. In: Global Warming of 1.5 °C. An IPCC Special Report on the Impacts of Global Warming of 1.5 °C Above Pre-industrial Levels and Related global Greenhouse Gas Emission Pathways, in the Context of Strengthening the Global Response to the Threat of Climate Change, Sustainable development, and Efforts to Eradicate Poverty. 2018. Available online: https://www.ipcc.ch/sr15/ (accessed on 14 December 2021).
- Deng, H.-M.; Liang, Q.-M.; Liu, L.-J.; Anadon, L.D. Co-benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation: A review and classification by type, mitigation sector, and geography. Environ. Res. Lett. 2018, 12, 123001. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Gao, J.; Kovats, S.; Vardoulakis, S.; Wilkinson, P.; Woodward, A.; Li, J.; Gu, S.; Liu, X.; Wu, H.; Wang, J. Public health co-benefits of greenhouse gas emissions reduction: A systematic review. Sci. Total Environ. 2018, 627, 388–402. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Prescription, H.C. An Urgent Call for Climate Action from the Health Community Ahead of COP26. Available online: https://healthyclimateletter.net/ (accessed on 25 October 2021).
- WHO. WHO’s 10 Calls for Climate Action to Assure Sustained Recovery from COVID-19 World Health Organization. 2021. Available online: https://www.who.int/news/item/11-10-2021-who-s-10-calls-for-climate-action-to-assure-sustained-recovery-from-covid-19 (accessed on 25 October 2021).
- Al-Delaimy, W.; Ramanathan, V.; Sánchez Sorondo, M. Health of People, Health of Planet and Our Responsibility: Climate Change, Air Pollution and Health; Springer Nature: Geneva, Switzerland, 2020. [Google Scholar]
- Rocque, R.J.; Beaudoin, C.; Ndjaboue, R.; Cameron, L.; Poirier-Bergeron, L.; Poulin-Rheault, R.-A.; Fallon, C.; Tricco, A.C.; Witteman, H.O. Health effects of climate change: An overview of systematic reviews. BMJ Open 2021, 11, e046333. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- IPCC. 6th Assessment Report (Working Group II) Climate Change 2022: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability; IPCC: Geneva, Switzerland, 2022. [Google Scholar]
- Eckelman, M.J.; Huang, K.; Lagasse, R.; Senay, E.; Dubrow, R.; Sherman, J.D. Health Care Pollution And Public Health Damage In The United States: An Update: Study examines health care pollution and public health damage in the United States. Health Aff. 2020, 39, 2071–2079. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lenzen, M.; Malik, A.; Li, M.; Fry, J.; Weisz, H.; Pichler, P.-P.; Chaves, L.S.M.; Capon, A.; Pencheon, D. The environmental footprint of health care: A global assessment. Lancet Planet. Health 2020, 4, e271–e279. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Chauhan, A.; Singh, A. Healthcare waste management: A state-of-the-art literature review. Int. J. Environ. Waste Manag. 2016, 18, 120–144. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Howard Frumkin, M. Health Care Waste and Climate Change. Am. J. Public Health 2021, 111, E15. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Hames, K. Healthcare waste disposal: An analysis of the effect of education on improving waste disposal. Healthc. Infect. 2013, 18, 110–114. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Honest, A.; Manyele, S.; Saria, J.; Mbuna, J. Assessment of air pollutant emissions from healthcare waste incinerators of different design features. Afr. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2020, 14, 311–328. [Google Scholar]
- Thakur, V.; Ramesh, A. Healthcare waste management research: A structured analysis and review (2005–2014). Waste Manag. Res. 2015, 33, 855–870. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Terzon, E. Australia’s Healthcare Industry Battling ‘Devastating’ Level of Waste, Nurses and Doctors Say: Australian Broadcasting Company (ABC). 2019. Available online: https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-07-13/war-on-waste-hospital-waste-australia-recycling/11306376 (accessed on 25 October 2021).
- Mazengarb, M. Australia’s Public Health Already Being Hit by Climate Change, Professionals Say. Renew Economy. 2021. Available online: https://reneweconomy.com.au/australias-public-health-already-being-hit-by-climate-change-professionals-say/ (accessed on 4 October 2021).
- Smith, R. Australia, a Laggard in Responding to Climate Change, Produces an Impressive Report on Climate Change and Health; British Medical Journal Publishing Group: London, UK, 2021; Volume 375. [Google Scholar]
- McGain, F.; Naylor, C. Environmental sustainability in hospitals–a systematic review and research agenda. J. Health Serv. Res. Policy 2014, 19, 245–252. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Nations, U. Health Institutions Join the United Nations Race to Zero Campaign United Nations. 2021. Available online: https://unfccc.int/news/health-institutions-join-the-united-nations-race-to-zero-campaign (accessed on 31 October 2021).
- Green and Healthy Hospitals GGaH. About GGHH, (Members around the World Section). 2022. Available online: https://greenhospitals.org/about (accessed on 18 February 2022).
- Holzmueller, C.G. How Health Care Organizations Can Reduce Their Carbon Footprint. Qual. Manag. Healthc. 2021, 30, 46–48. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Tennison, I.; Roschnik, S.; Ashby, B.; Boyd, R.; Hamilton, I.; Oreszczyn, T.; Owen, A.; Romanello, M.; Ruyssevelt, P.; Sherman, J.D. Health care’s response to climate change: A carbon footprint assessment of the NHS in England. Lancet Planet. Health 2021, 5, e84–e92. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Hensher, M.; McGain, F. Health Care Sustainability Metrics: Building A Safer, Low-Carbon Health System: Commentary examines how to build a safer, low-carbon health system. Health Aff. 2020, 39, 2080–2087. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Australian Government Department of Industry; Energy and Resources Household. Heating and Cooling. 2021. Available online: https://www.energy.gov.au/households/heating-and-cooling (accessed on 4 November 2021).
- Doctor, M.G. My Green Doctor. 2022. Available online: https://mygreendoctor.org (accessed on 4 November 2021).
- Rehr, R.; Perkowitz, R. Moving Forward: A Guide for Health Professionals to Build Momentum on Climate Action; Eco America, Climate for Health: San Fransisco, CA, USA, 2019. [Google Scholar]
- Wang, E.Y.; Zafar, J.E.; Lawrence, C.M.; Gavin, L.F.; Mishra, S.; Boateng, A.; Thiel, C.L.; Dubrow, R.; Sherman, J.D. Environmental emissions reduction of a preoperative evaluation center utilizing telehealth screening and standardized preoperative testing guidelines. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 2021, 171, 105652. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Skoog, M.; Backman, A. Replacing Waste Streams in the Healthcare Industry by Applied Technology: Developing Technology for a Circular Economy. 2020. Available online: https://www.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2%3A1440290&dswid=8477 (accessed on 17 January 2022).
- Gertsakis, J.; Lewis, H. Sustainability and the waste management hierarchy. Retrieved Jan. 2003, 30, 2008. [Google Scholar]
- Shafqat, A.; Tahir, A.; Mahmood, A.; Tabinda, A.B.; Yasar, A.; Pugazhendhi, A. A review on environmental significance carbon foot prints of starch based bio-plastic: A substitute of conventional plastics. Biocatal. Agric. Biotechnol. 2020, 27, 101540. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Zheng, J.; Suh, S. Strategies to reduce the global carbon footprint of plastics. Nat. Clim. Change 2019, 9, 374–378. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Andrews, A.; Gregoire, M.; Rasmussen, H.; Witowich, G. Comparison of recycling outcomes in three types of recycling collection units. Waste Manag. 2013, 33, 530–535. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Rosenthal, S.; Linder, N. Effects of bin proximity and informational prompts on recycling and contamination. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 2021, 168, 105430. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Australian Government DoA, Water and Environment. Investing in Australia’s Waste and Recycling Infrastructure. Available online: https://www.awe.gov.au/environment/protection/waste/how-we-manage-waste/recycling-modernisation-fund (accessed on 10 November 2021).
- Kinney, L.M. Environmental sustainability in healthcare. J. Qual. Particip. 2010, 33, 23. [Google Scholar]
- Hedlund-de Witt, A.; De Boer, J.; Boersema, J.J. Exploring inner and outer worlds: A quantitative study of worldviews, environmental attitudes, and sustainable lifestyles. J. Environ. Psychol. 2014, 37, 40–54. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Dunphy, J.L. Healthcare professionals’ perspectives on environmental sustainability. Nurs. Ethics 2014, 21, 414–425. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Kotcher, J.; Maibach, E.; Miller, J.; Campbell, E.; Alqodmani, L.; Maiero, M.; Wyns, A. Views of health professionals on climate change and health: A multinational survey study. Lancet Planet. Health 2021, 5, e316–e323. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Wilson, D. Recycling and Environmental Sustainability In the New Zealand Healthcare Setting: A Practice-led Case Study Research-Project; Auckland University of Technology: Auckland, New Zealand, 2020. [Google Scholar]
- Climate and Health Alliance CAHA. Real, Urgent & Now, Insights from Health Professionals on Climate and Health in Australia; Climate and Health Alliance: Melbourne, Australia, 2021. [Google Scholar]
- Walpole, S.C.; Barna, S.; Richardson, J.; Rother, H.-A. Sustainable healthcare education: Integrating planetary health into clinical education. Lancet Planet. Health 2019, 3, e6–e7. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Greenhealth, P. Sustainable Procurement Guide. 2021. Available online: https://practicegreenhealth.org/sustainableprocurementguide (accessed on 23 October 2021).
- Compliance Council. ISO 14001 Environmental Management System. 2022. Available online: https://www.compliancecouncil.com.au/standards/iso-14001-environmental-management-system (accessed on 12 March 2022).
- Ritchie, N.H. Leadership for a Climate Resilient, Net-Zero Health System: Transforming Supply Chains to the Circular Economy; Healthcare Management Forum; SAGE Publications: Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2021. [Google Scholar]
- Guldmann, E. Best Practice Examples of Circular Business Models; Danish Environmental Protection Agency: Copenhagen, Denmark, 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Healthcare WIthout Harm HCWH. 2020 Annual Report HCWH. 2020. Available online: https://noharm-uscanada.org/sites/default/files/documents-files/6649/HCWH-AnnualReport%20011221-digital_0.pdf (accessed on 1 November 2021).
- Zadeh, R.S.; Xuan, X.; Shepley, M.M. Sustainable healthcare design: Existing challenges and future directions for an environmental, economic, and social approach to sustainability. Facilities 2016, 34, 264–288. [Google Scholar]
- Parkinson, G. Look, No Gas! South Australia to Build Country’s First All-Electric Hospital Renew Economy. 2021. Available online: https://reneweconomy.com.au/look-no-gas-south-australia-to-build-countrys-first-all-electric-hospital/ (accessed on 3 November 2021).
- Corvalan, C.; Villalobos Prats, E.; Sena, A.; Campbell-Lendrum, D.; Karliner, J.; Risso, A.; Wilburn, S.; Slotterback, S.; Rathi, M.; Stringer, R. Towards Climate Resilient and Environmentally Sustainable Health Care Facilities. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 8849. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Alshehri, A. Advancing Sustainability: Environmental Health and Institutional Change in Healthcare Facilities; State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry: New York, NY, USA, 2016. [Google Scholar]
- Kazançoğlu, Y.; Sağnak, M.; Lafcı, Ç.; Luthra, S.; Kumar, A.; Taçoğlu, C. Big data-enabled solutions framework to overcoming the barriers to circular economy initiatives in healthcare sector. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 7513. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Rodriguez, R.; Svensson, G.; Høgevold, N.M.; Eriksson, D. Factors and determinants of value-and business-driven sustainability initiatives in health care organizations: Intrinsic differences and extrinsic similarities. Corp. Gov. Int. J. Bus. Soc. 2019, 19, 806–823. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Manika, D.; Gregory-Smith, D.; Wells, V.K.; Comerford, L.; Aldrich-Smith, L. Linking environmental sustainability and healthcare: The effects of an energy saving intervention in two hospitals. Int. J. Bus. Sci. Appl. Manag. 2017, 11, 32–55. [Google Scholar]
- Sherman, J.D.; McGain, F.; Lem, M.; Mortimer, F.; Jonas, W.B.; MacNeill, A.J. Net zero healthcare: A call for clinician action. BMJ 2021, 374, n1323. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Dzau, V.J.; Levine, R.; Barrett, G.; Witty, A. Decarbonizing the US Health Sector—A Call to Action. N. Engl. J. Med. 2021, 385, 2117–2119. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gomez, J.; Goshua, A.; Pokrajac, N.; Erny, B.; Auerbach, P.; Nadeau, K.; Gisondi, M.A. Teaching medical students about the impacts of climate change on human health. J. Clim. Change Health 2021, 3, 100020. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Maric, F.; Chance-Larsen, K.; Chevan, J.; Jameson, S.; Nicholls, D.; Opsommer, E.; Perveen, W.; Richter, R.; Stanhope, J.; Stone, O. A Progress Report on Planetary Health, Environmental and Sustainability Education in Physiotherapy–Editorial; Taylor & Francis: London, UK, 2021. [Google Scholar]
- Bressler, R.D. The mortality cost of carbon. Nat. Commun. 2021, 12, 4467. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Practice Greenhealth. 2019 Sustainability Data. 2021. Available online: https://practicegreenhealth.org/tools-and-resources/2019-sustainability-data (accessed on 23 October 2021).
- Wheeler, S.M. Theory of Sustainability Planning. In Planning for Sustainability: Creating Livable, Equitable and Ecological Communities; Routledge: London, UK, 2013; pp. 34–52. [Google Scholar]
- Australian Bureau of Statistics, A. Health Conditions and Risks. 2021. Available online: https://www.abs.gov.au/statistics/health/health-conditions-and-risks (accessed on 16 March 2022).
- Aldakhil, A.M.; Nassani, A.A.; Abro, M.M.Q.; Zaman, K. Food-beverage-tobacco consumption, smoking prevalence, and high-technology exports influenced healthcare sustainability agenda across the globe. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 2018, 25, 33249–33263. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Martin, N.; Mulligan, S. Environmental sustainability through good-quality oral healthcare. Int. Dent. J. 2021, 72, 26–30. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Barratt, A.L.; Bell, K.J.; Charlesworth, K.; McGain, F. High value health care is low carbon health care. Med. J. Aust. 2021, 216, 67–68. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sherman, J.D.; Thiel, C.; MacNeill, A.; Eckelman, M.J.; Dubrow, R.; Hopf, H.; Lagasse, R.; Bialowitz, J.; Costello, A.; Forbes, M. The green print: Advancement of environmental sustainability in healthcare. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 2020, 161, 104882. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- White, P.; Skirrow, H.; George, A.; Memon, A. A systematic review of economic evaluations of local authority commissioned preventative public health interventions in overweight and obesity, physical inactivity, alcohol and illicit drugs use and smoking cessation in the United Kingdom. J. Public Health 2018, 40, e521–e530. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Markandya, A.; Sampedro, J.; Smith, S.J.; Van Dingenen, R.; Pizarro-Irizar, C.; Arto, I.; González-Eguino, M. Health co-benefits from air pollution and mitigation costs of the Paris Agreement: A modelling study. Lancet Planet. Health 2018, 2, e126–e133. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Health and Environment Alliance HaE. Fossil Fuel Subsidies and Health; The Health and Environment Alliance: Brussels, Belgium, 2017. [Google Scholar]
- Campbell, R.; Littleton, E.; Armistead, A. Fossil Fuel Subsidies in Australia: The Australian Institute. 2021. Available online: https://australiainstitute.org.au/report/fossil-fuel-subsidies-in-australia/ (accessed on 12 March 2022).
- Healthcare Without Harm HCWH. Climate Resilience for Health Care and Communities; 2022. Available online: https://noharm-uscanada.org/sites/defult/files/documents-files/7024/Climate-Resilience-for-Health-Care-and-Communities-Stratigies-and-Case-Studies.pdf (accessed on 9 March 2022).
- Palstam, A.; Andersson, M.; Lange, E.; Grenholm, A. A Call to Include a Perspective of Sustainable Development in Physical Therapy Research. Phys. Ther. 2021, 101, pzaa228. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- WHO. More Active People for a Healthier World. Global Action Plan on Physical Activity 2018–2030; World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2018. [Google Scholar]
- Government, V. Waste Victoria Health. 2012. Available online: https://www2.health.vic.gov.au/hospitals-and-health-services/planning-infrastructure/sustainability/waste (accessed on 21 November 2021).
|Health business||Ecological footprint/footprint||Carbon footprint||Waste|
|Small health business||Sustainability/Sustainab *||CO2||Single use|
|Health clinic||Decarbonisation/Decarbon *||Pollution|
|Healthcare, Health care||Net Zero, Net-Zero||Emissions|
|Allied Health||Circular economy|
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
© 2022 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Duindam, D. Transitioning to Sustainable Healthcare: Decarbonising Healthcare Clinics, a Literature Review. Challenges 2022, 13, 68. https://doi.org/10.3390/challe13020068
Duindam D. Transitioning to Sustainable Healthcare: Decarbonising Healthcare Clinics, a Literature Review. Challenges. 2022; 13(2):68. https://doi.org/10.3390/challe13020068Chicago/Turabian Style
Duindam, David. 2022. "Transitioning to Sustainable Healthcare: Decarbonising Healthcare Clinics, a Literature Review" Challenges 13, no. 2: 68. https://doi.org/10.3390/challe13020068