Next Article in Journal
Pastoralism in Latin America: An Ensemble of Religious Governmental Technologies in Colonial Costa Rica
Next Article in Special Issue
Religious Liberty in Prisons under the Religious Land Use and Institutionalized Persons Act following Holt v Hobbs: An Empirical Analysis
Previous Article in Journal
Almsgiving and Competing Soteriologies in Second-Century Christianity
Previous Article in Special Issue
Faith-Based Mentoring of Ex-Felons in Higher Education: Colson Scholars Reflect on Their Transitions
Article Menu
Issue 7 (July) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Religions 2018, 9(7), 202;

The Effects of Provincial and Individual Religiosity on Deviance in China: A Multilevel Modeling Test of the Moral Community Thesis

Department of Statistical Science, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798, USA
Institute for Studies of Religion, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 May 2018 / Revised: 22 June 2018 / Accepted: 22 June 2018 / Published: 27 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Religion and Crime: Theory, Research, and Practice)
Full-Text   |   PDF [491 KB, uploaded 11 July 2018]   |  


This paper examines the moral community thesis in the secular context of China. Using multilevel logistic regression, we test (1) whether both individual- (measured by affiliation with Islam, Buddhism and Christianity) and aggregate-level religiosity (measured by the number of mosques, Buddhist temples, and churches per 10,000 people in province) are inversely related to law and rule violations at the individual level and (2) whether province-level religiosity enhances the inverse relationship between individual religiosity and deviant behaviors. Results from the 2010 China General Social Survey and the Spatial Explorer of Religions provide some support for the moral community proposition that contextual religiosity affects deviance at the individual level. Specifically, we find provincial as well as individual level of Islam to be inversely related with the violation of the law and rules. However, we find that neither the provincial level of Christianity and Buddhism nor cross-level interaction is related to deviance. The only exception, cross-level interaction involving the individual and provincial level of Islam, is in the opposite direction (i.e., positive, not negative). The implications of our findings are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: religion; law and rule violations; moral community; China religion; law and rule violations; moral community; China

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, X.; Jang, S.J. The Effects of Provincial and Individual Religiosity on Deviance in China: A Multilevel Modeling Test of the Moral Community Thesis. Religions 2018, 9, 202.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Religions EISSN 2077-1444 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert Logo copyright Steve Bridenbaugh/UUA
Back to Top