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Open AccessArticle

Religion and Crime Studies: Assessing What Has Been Learned

Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VI 23529, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Religions 2018, 9(6), 193;
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 18 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Religion and Crime: Theory, Research, and Practice)
This paper provides a review of the literature that assesses the relationship between religion and crime. Research on the relationship between religion and crime indicates that certain aspects of religion reduces participation in criminal activity. A review of the literature indicates religion reduces participation in criminal activity in two broad ways. First, religion seems to operate at a micro level. Studies have pointed to how religious beliefs are associated with self-control. Second, researches have examined the social control aspects of religion. In particular, how factors such as level of participation and social support from such participation reduces criminal activity. Likewise, findings suggest that although there has been a sizable number of studies and diverse interests of researchers examining the religion/crime nexus, the research has not identified which aspects of religion have the strongest influence on crime reduction. In addition, the specific ways in which these factors are associated with crime reduction have not been comprehensively identified. Similarly, more than 40 years of empirical scholarship suggests that religion suppresses criminal behavior. Nevertheless, these findings remain controversial as the literature neither accentuates the mechanisms of religion responsible for suppressing criminal behavior, nor does the literature reject the spuriousness of the religion-crime association relative to mediating effects of self-control and social control. Finally, our review suggests that methodological constraints infringe on the capacity for sociological and criminological to accurately ascertain the validity of the religion-crime nexus, often generating mixed or inconclusive findings on the religion-crime association. Our paper concludes with recommendations for future empirical scholarship that examines the religion-crime nexus. View Full-Text
Keywords: religion; crime; methodology; spurious; inverse religion; crime; methodology; spurious; inverse
MDPI and ACS Style

Sumter, M.; Wood, F.; Whitaker, I.; Berger-Hill, D. Religion and Crime Studies: Assessing What Has Been Learned. Religions 2018, 9, 193.

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