The American Cyrus: How an Ancient King Became a Political Tool for Voter Mobilization
Father, I pray for [our] president. (…) We ask you, Father, that he can be the Cyrus, to bring reformation, to bring change into this nation. And all the nations of the earth will say, America is the greatest nation of the earth.
2. The Various King Cyrus in Time and Space
2.1. What Do We Know about King Cyrus?
Now in the first year of Cyrus king of Persia, that the word of the Lord by the mouth of Jeremiah might be fulfilled, the Lord stirred up the spirit of Cyrus king of Persia, so that he made a proclamation throughout all his kingdom, and also put it in writing, saying, ‘Thus says Cyrus king of Persia: All the kingdoms of the earth the Lord God of heaven has given me. And He has commanded me to build Him a house at Jerusalem which is in Judah. Who is among you of all His people? May the Lord his God be with him, and let him go up!’(2 Chronicles 36:22–23)
2.2. The Plasticity of King Cyrus
2.3. Not the Man, but the Deed
A new Cyrus has appeared, but he has done more for them than the olden one. If he has not reconstructed their temple, he has given them a homeland and protective laws for their cult and their civil rights; in making them citizens and members of the great nation, he has done them honour; in giving them principles, he has forever secured them from the contempt of his peoples. Penetrated with gratitude for such precious gifts, the children of Israel have prostrated themselves at the feet of the throne of the Great Napoleon (…).(Quoted in Mainz 1996, p. 207)
2.4. Zionism and the Need for a New Cyrus
2.5. The Friendly Gentile Nation
As the spirit of Cyrus, king of Persia, was stirred up to build the Lord a temple (…), who is there among you, high and mighty ones of all the nations, to find the good pleasure of the holy will of the Lord of heaven, saying of Jerusalem, ‘Thou shalt be built,’ and to the temple, ‘Thy foundations shall be laid?’(Quoted in note 4 by B. H. Roberts, in Smith 1908)
Happy shall those be who shall be employed in accomplishing God’s purposes of mercy to his ancient people, for ‘they shall prosper who love Zion.’ The honour and happiness to be thus obtained appear to be now within our reach (…). It is foretold also that the ships of Tarshish shall be employed in conducting the lost tribes of Israel to their home, and who are more likely to be employed in this service, or could more easily accomplish it, than the nations whose fleets have been long engaged in protecting and succouring the wretched, which have accessed to countries where Jews are to be found. That the promises of Jehovah shall be accomplished by some Gentile nation is absolutely certain, and everything seems to indicate their speedy fulfilment; and it remains now to be seen whether her majesty’s government is to be the chosen instrument in accomplishing this blessed work, (as Cyrus, the great King of Persia, was in ancient time,) or whether the honour and consequent prosperity are to be conferred upon some other maritime power.(Quoted in Frey 1843, pp. 282–83)
[I]f we approach the present Emperor, what are we asking for? Are we asking anything to abate his dignity or to lower his power? Nay, on the contrary, are we not asking him to do that which will conduce very much to his honour? Are we not asking him to do justice to a large body of his loyal and suffering people? Are we not asking him to restrain violence, murder, outrage, and spoliation? Are we not asking him to be a Cyrus to the Jews and not an Antiochus Epiphanes?(Quoted in Lewis 2010, pp. 325–26)
3. The American Cyrus—One of the Many?
3.1. A Calling to the American President
Why not give Palestine back to them? According to God’s distribution of nations it is their home, an inalienable possession from which they were expelled by force. (…) Does not Palestine as rightfully belong to the Jews [as other nations to other peoples]? (…) We believe this is an appropriate time for all nations and especially the Christian nations of Europe to show kindness to Israel.
[T]here seem to be many evidences to show that we have reached the period in the great roll of the centuries, when the ever living God (…) is lifting up His hand to the Gentiles, (…) to bring His sons and His daughters from far, that he may plant them again in their own land (…). Not for twenty-four centuries, since the days of Cyrus, King of Persia, has there been offered to any mortal such a privileged opportunity to further the purposes of God concerning His ancient people.
A marvelous sphere of usefulness seems clearly predicted for our Nation as God’s chosen instrument in these last days. Just as surely as God raised up Cyrus to befriend His ancient people, in the days of Persia’s supremacy, so I believe, has he raised up you, for leadership of our Nation in this crux of opportunity. And just as sure as you are true to God’s Word and His purposes revealed therein, will you be supernaturally upheld and guided to bring blessing, not only to Israel, but to the whole world.
In God’s providence, it has been my privilege to secure a remarkable endorsement of the memorial in behalf of the Jews (…). Believing that the progress of events augur the imminence of the psychological moment for benign action in behalf of the Jews, similar to that exhibited by Cyrus of Persia, and assured of your sympathy and willingness to aid the Jewish people in their present tragic sufferings, and praying that you may seize the opportunity of securing to yourself and our nation the blessing, promised by God to Abraham and his seed, by showing kindness to Israel.(Blackstone quoted in Klinger n.d., pp. 9–10)
3.2. “I Am Cyrus”
3.3. Cyrus, Trump, and the 2016 Election
I will use the wealth that I have given him to expose and launch investigations searching for the truth. Just as I raised up Cyrus to fulfill My purposes and plans, so have I raised up Trump to fulfill my purposes and plans prior to the 2016 election. You must listen to the trumpet very closely for he will sound the alarm and many will be blessed because of his compassion and mercy. Though many see the outward pride and arrogance, I have given him the tender heart of a father that wants to lend a helping hand to the poor and the needy, to the foreigner and the stranger.(Quoted in Beverley 2020)
Some Christians appear to be absolutely infuriated at the thought or prophetic word that God is going to use Donald Trump as a Trumpet to expose darkness and bring truth because of His [sic] moral background and political views. (…) I, like many of you, was shocked by the word I received regarding Donald Trump. (…) Again, I am not called to prophecy what I think or what my opinion is. I simply deliver the word of the Lord (…).(Quoted in Beverley 2020)
I was updating some random social media activity when I ran across a simple PowerPoint showing Trump seated in the oval office with the words ‘Donald Trump, the 45th President of the United States.’ (…) I was dazed. Literally no one was thinking this would be a possibility but I was sensing that this was more than some random Facebook meme; it was a prophetic picture. It struck me the same way the ‘wrecking ball’ word did. The Spirit impressed upon my mind ‘read Isaiah 45.’
Just because Trump is a Cyrus doesn’t mean the people can’t end up rejecting him. God never told me Trump would win. He told me Trump is a Cyrus for our nation if we have eyes to see. My burden is to get the church to see!
3.4. The Story Continues to Evolve
It is undoubtedly in America’s best interests to support Israel. (…) President Trump understands this better than any President that has come before him. It is why President Trump is the greatest friend of Israel ever to serve in the White House.
I will be in the White House on Monday and the first word I’m going to send to him, “Cyrus, you’re Cyrus. Because you’ve done something historic and prophetic”, and he promised us he would do it.
…it was the king of Persia who, 1000 years before Mohammad was even born, said that Jerusalem was the capital of the Jewish people’s country (…) Trump recognized history. He, like King Cyrus before him, fulfilled the biblical prophecy (…) that Jerusalem is the eternal capital of the Jewish state and that the Jewish people deserve a righteous, free, and sovereign Israel.
I believe Donald Trump won the election to declare and recognize Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. (…) I have declared President Donald Trump the modern-day Cyrus. Just as King Cyrus set the Israelites free from the Babylonian captivity, Donald Trump is setting Jerusalem free from the slave [sic] of unrecognition.
Trump’s political agenda can only succeed if it is focused on building the Third Temple on the place that God chose: The Temple Mount. He must not advance any two-state solution or this will lead to his downfall.(Quoted in Berkowitz 2018a)
raised up during WWII as the instrument to stop Hitler. Churchill saw the bigger issues and described the grand theme of their crisis as a contest involving the survival of “Christian civilization.”
4. Discussion: A Typological Understanding of King Cyrus
The United States has held the door of democracy open. Satan intends to shut it. By now I hope you can see that this is far beyond a battle of politics. (…) We are up against a malevolent and demonic agenda aimed to destroy the global force for kingdom expansion that is America. (…) Satan, well aware of America’s unique assignment to globally advance the discipleship of nations, recognizes the influence of what we export.
Father, I pray for [our] president. I pray for you to give him boldness. I pray, Father, for him to defy and challenge giants in the world, and defy and challenge the enemies in this nation. (…) We ask you, Father, that he can be the Cyrus, to bring reformation, to bring change into this nation. And all the nations of the earth will say, America is the greatest nation of the earth.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
- Acemoglu, Daron, Tarek A. Hassan, and James A. Robinson. 2011. Social Structure and Development: A Legacy of the Holocaust in Russia. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 126: 895–946. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Adler, Frank J. 1973. Review Essay: Harry S. Truman by Margaret Truman. Jewish Historical Quarterly 62: 414–25. [Google Scholar]
- Antwi, Robert. 2018. The Modern-Day Cyrus. Bloomington: AuthorHouse. [Google Scholar]
- AP (Associated Press). 2018. Israel Group Mints Trump Coin to Honour Jerusalem Recognition. AP Archive (YouTube). March 5. Available online: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oegd7TLXVvk (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Ariel, Yaakov. 2006. An Unexpected Alliance: Christian Zionism and Its Historical Significance. Modern Judaism 26: 74–100. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Arutz Sheva. 2005. Sanhedrin Launched in Tiberias. Arutz Sheva. January 20. Available online: https://www.israelnationalnews.com/News/News.aspx/70349 (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Assembly of Jewish Notables. 1806. Answers to Napoleon. Available online: https://people.ucalgary.ca/~elsegal/363_Transp/Sanhedrin.html (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Avery, Harry C. 1972. Herodotus’ Picture of Cyrus. The American Journal of Philology 93: 529–46. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Badalian, Greg. 2018. Millennia: The Cyrus Key to the Donald Trump Presidency. Peoria: Independently Published. [Google Scholar]
- Barrett-Fox, Rebecca. 2018. A King Cyrus President: How Donald Trump’s Presidency Reasserts Conservative Christians’ Right to Hegemony. Humanity & Society 42: 502–22. [Google Scholar]
- Benson, Michael T. 1994. Harry S. Truman as a Modern Cyrus. BYU Studies Quarterly 34: 7–27. [Google Scholar]
- Benson, Michael T. 1997. Harry S. Truman and the Founding of Israel. Westport: Praeger. [Google Scholar]
- Berkowitz, Adam E. 2016. BIN Exclusive: Sanhedrin Asks Putin and Trump to Build Third Temple in Jerusalem. Israel365News. November 10. Available online: https://www.israel365news.com/78372/bin-exclusive-sanhedrin-asks-putin-trump-build-third-temple-jerusalem/#/ (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Berkowitz, Adam E. 2018a. Sanhedrin Mints Silver Half Shekel with Images of Trump and Cyrus. Israel365News. February 15. Available online: https://www.israel365news.com/102784/sanhedrin-temple-movement-issue-silver-half-shekel-images-trump-cyrus/ (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Berkowitz, Adam E. 2018b. Global Support for Third Temple Coin. Israel365News. March 5. Available online: https://www.israel365news.com/103700/global-support-third-temple-coin/ (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Berkowitz, Adam E. 2018c. Netanyahu compares Trump to Cyrus in Compliment of Biblical Proportions. Israel365News. March 6. Available online: https://www.israel365news.com/103756/netanyahu-compares-trump-cyrus-compliment-biblical-proportions/ (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Berkowitz, Adam E. 2018d. New Special Edition Trump-Temple Coin Minted for Israel’s 70th Anniversary—The End of the Exile. Israel365News. April 12. Available online: https://www.israel365news.com/105767/new-special-edition-temple-coin-minted-for-israels-70th-anniversary-the-end-of-the-exile/ (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Beschloss, Michael R. 2007. Presidential Courage: Brave Leaders and How They Changed America 1789–1989. New York: Simon and Schuster. [Google Scholar]
- Beverley, James A. 2020. God’s Man in the White House: Donald Trump in Modern Christian Prophecy. Burlington: Castle Quay Books. [Google Scholar]
- Black, Alasdair. 2018. The Balfour Declaration: Scottish Presbyterian Eschatology and British Policy towards Palestine. Perichoresis 16: 35–59. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Blackstone, William E. 1891. Covering Letter to Benjamin Harrison and James G. Blaine. AMF International (Archived). March 5. Available online: https://web.archive.org/web/20061006235327/http://www.amfi.org/blackmem.htm (accessed on 30 March 2020).
- Blackstone, William E. 1916. Covering Letter to Woodrow Wilson, November 17. In “To Show Kindness to Israel”: William Blacksone’s Memorial. From the Vault, July 1, 2020. Available online: https://fromthevault.wheaton.edu/2020/07/01/to-show-kindness-to-israel-william-blackstones-memorial/ (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Blackstone Memorial. 1891. Presented to the President of the United States in Favor of the Restoration of Palestine to the Jews. AMF International (Archived). Available online: https://web.archive.org/web/20061006235327/http://www.amfi.org/blackmem.htm (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Boyer, Paul. 1992. When Time Shall Be No More: Prophecy Belief in Modern American Culture. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. [Google Scholar]
- Briggs, Megan. 2016. Franklin Graham Encourages Evangelicals to Think of Trump as Moses or David. ChurchLeaders. June 22. Available online: https://churchleaders.com/daily-buzz/281852-franklin-graham-evangelicals-trump.html (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Brown, Lucille W., and Stephen M. Berk. 1977. Fathers and Sons: Hasidim, Orthodoxy, and Haskalah: A View from Eastern Europe. The Oral History Review 5: 17–32. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Budiselić, Ervin. 2015. The Problem of “Kingdom Now” Theology Challenge: Part 1. KAIROS—Evangelical Journal of Theology 9: 143–70. [Google Scholar]
- Cahn, Jonathan. 2017. The Paradigm: The Ancient Blueprint That Holds the Mystery of Our Times. Lake Mary: Frontline. [Google Scholar]
- Cahn, Jonathan. 2019. The Oracle: The Jubilean Mysteries Unveiled. Lake Mary: Frontline. [Google Scholar]
- CBN (Christian Broadcasting Network). 2017. Lance Wallnau: Why Trump Is ‘God’s Chaos Candidate’ and ‘Wrecking Ball’. CBN News. March 21. Available online: https://www1.cbn.com/cbnnews/us/2017/march/lance-wallnau-weighs-in-on-gods-chaos-candidate-now-americas-president (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Chapman, Daniel Ethan. 2010. Jewish Identity in White and Black. Counterpoints 355: 115–27. [Google Scholar]
- Charm, Kobena. 2016. Is Donald Trump America’s Cyrus the Great? Kindle ed. Seattle: Amazon. [Google Scholar]
- Cioccolanti, Steve. 2020a. Trump’s Unfinished Business: 10 Prophecies to Save America. Black Rock: Discover Media. [Google Scholar]
- Cioccolanti, Steve. 2020b. President Trump’s Pro-Christian Accomplishments. Black Rock: Discover Media. [Google Scholar]
- Clark, Victoria. 2007. Allies for Armageddon: The Rise of Christian Zionism. New Haven: Yale University Press. [Google Scholar]
- Clement, Kim. 2007. Prophecy given in Redding, California, on April 4. House of Destiny Network. Available online: https://www.houseofdestiny.org/prophecy/word/?trid=11 (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Cohen, Eliot A. 2019. He’s No King David: Some of the President’s Supporters Have Taken to Comparing Him to the Biblical Monarch. The Atlantic. December 2. Available online: https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2019/12/donald-trump-modern-day-king-david/602830/ (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Corey, Benjamin L. 2015. Charisma Mag: Donald Trump Is The New Word of God. Patheos (Blog). July 29. Available online: https://www.patheos.com/blogs/formerlyfundie/charisma-news-donald-trump-is-the-new-word-of-god/ (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Crome, Andrew. 2018. Christian Zionism and English National Identity, 1600–1850. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. [Google Scholar]
- Cyrus Cylinder. 1879. Translations from the British Museum. Available online: https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/W_1880-0617-1941 (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Daccarett, Paula. 2005. 1890s Zionism Reconsidered: Joseph Marco Baruch. Jewish History 19: 315–45. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Davidson, Lawrence. 2005. Christian Zionism as a Representation of American Manifest Destiny. Critique: Critical Middle Eastern Studies 14: 157–69. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- De La Rosa, Jose. 2017. Trump: The US’s King Cyrus & The American Prayer. Buford: Faith Publishers. [Google Scholar]
- Delage, Irène, and Emmanuelle Papot. 2019. Napoleon I and the Integration of the Jews in France: Some Points of Interest. Fondation Napoelon. Available online: https://www.napoleon.org/en/history-of-the-two-empires/articles/napoleon-and-the-jews/ (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- du Mez, Kristin Kobes. 2020. Jesus and John Wayne: How White Evangelicals Corrupted a Faith and Fractured a Nation. New York: Liveright Publishing Corporation. [Google Scholar]
- Durbin, Sean. 2013. ‘I am an Israeli’: Christian Zionism as American Redemption. Culture and Religion 14: 324–47. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Durbin, Sean. 2020. From King Cyrus to Queen Esther: Christian Zionists’ Discursive Construction of Donald Trump as God’s Instrument. Critical Research on Religion 8: 115–37. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Edwards, J. D. 2012. The Cyrus Test: A Biblical Approach to Voting When Candidates Don’t Share Your Faith, Kindle ed. Seattle: Amazon. [Google Scholar]
- Engberg, Aron. 2020. Walking on the Pages of the Word of God: Self, Land, and Text among Evangelical Volunteers in Jerusalem. Leiden: Brill. [Google Scholar]
- Ericksen, Robert P. 2019. Stereotypes, Politics, and Religion in the American Bible Belt, 1960–2019. Kirchliche Zeitgeschichte 32: 242–63. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Fea, John. 2018. Believe Me: The Evangelical Road to Donald Trump. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. [Google Scholar]
- Feiner, Shmuel. 1996. The Pseudo-Enlightenment and the Question of Jewish Modernization. Jewish Social Studies 3: 62–88. [Google Scholar]
- Ferrell, Robert H., ed. 2002. The Autobiography of Harry S. Truman, 3rd ed. Boulder: Colorado Associated University Press. [Google Scholar]
- Fischel, Walter J. 1950. The Jews of Persia, 1795–1940. Jewish Social Studies 12: 119–60. [Google Scholar]
- Fitzgerald, Frances. 2017. The Evangelicals: The Struggle to Shape America. New York: Simon & Schuster Paperbacks. [Google Scholar]
- Fraser, Thomas G. 1989. The USA and the Middle East since World War 2. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. [Google Scholar]
- Frey, Joseph Samuel C. F. 1843. Essays on Christian Baptism, 5th ed. New York: Independently published. [Google Scholar]
- Friedman, David. 2019. Former Ambassador Friedman’s Remarks at Christians United for Israel Summit 2019. U.S. Embassy in Israel, July 9. Available online: https://il.usembassy.gov/ambassador-friedmans-remarks-at-christians-united-for-israel-summit-2019/ (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Garrard, Virginia. 2020. Hidden in Plain Sight: Dominion Theology, Spiritual Warfare, and Violence in Latin America. Religions 11: 648. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gibson, James L., and Marc Morjé Howard. 2007. Russian Anti-Semitism and the Scapegoating of Jews. British Journal of Political Science 37: 193–223. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Goldblatt, Charles Israel. 1968. The Impact of the Balfour Declaration in America. American Jewish Historical Quarterly 57: 455–515. [Google Scholar]
- Gorski, Philip. 2017. Why Evangelicals Voted for Trump. A Critical Cultural Sociology. American Journal of Cultural Sociology 5: 338–54. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Green, Abigail. 2012. Moses Montefiore: Jewish Liberator, Imperial Hero. Cambridge and London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. [Google Scholar]
- Gruen, Erich S. 2016. The Construct of Identity in Hellenistic Judaism: Essays on Early Jewish Literature and History. Berlin and Boston: De Gruyter. [Google Scholar]
- Hafner Josh. 2016. Meet the Evangelicals who Prophesied a Trump Win. USA Today. November 10. Available online: https://eu.usatoday.com/story/news/nation-now/2016/11/10/meet-evangelicals-prophesied-trump-win/93575144/ (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Harrison, Benjamin. 1891. Third Annual Message (Transcript). University of Virginia, Miller Center, December 9. Available online: https://millercenter.org/the-presidency/presidential-speeches/december-9-1891-third-annual-message-0 (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Horn, Thomas R. 2017. Divine Providence and a Big Question: If God Was Behind the Election of Donald Trump, Is He a Cyrus (Deliverer) or Nebuchadnezzar (Agent of Judgment)? Charisma News. August 22. Available online: https://www.charismanews.com/politics/opinion/66948-divine-providence-and-a-big-question-if-god-was-behind-the-election-of-donald-trump-is-he-a-cyrus-deliverer-or-nebuchadnezzar-agent-of-judgment (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Horn, Thomas R. 2019. The Rabbis, Donald Trump, and the Top-Secret Plan to Build the Third Temple: Unveiling the Incendiary Scheme by Religious Authorities, Government Agents, & Jewish Rabbis to Invoke Messiah. Crane: Defender Publishing. [Google Scholar]
- House of Destiny. 2021. Moments with Kim. House of Destiny Network. Available online: https://www.houseofdestiny.org/our-heritage/ (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Hunsicker, Jacqueline R. 2013. The Two Cyruses: Models of Machiavellian Humanity and Harshness for Republican Leaders. History of Political Thought 34: 19–34. [Google Scholar]
- Hunter, Molly. 2018. Israeli Group Sells Special-edition Trump Coin. In ABC News; May 11. Available online: https://abcnews.go.com/International/israeli-group-sells-special-edition-trump-coin/story?id=55096698 (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Jim Bakker Show. 2016a. Trump and America’s Fourth Crucible (Day 1). Jim Bakker Show. October 27. Available online: https://jimbakkershow.morningsidechurchinc.com/video/lance-wallnau-day-1/ (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Jim Bakker Show. 2016b. Trump and America’s Fourth Crucible (Day 2). Jim Bakker Show. October 27. Available online: https://jimbakkershow.morningsidechurchinc.com/video/lance-wallnau-day-2/ (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Jim Bakker Show. 2018. The Importance of Prophecy in Today’s World (Day 1). Jim Bakker Show. May 30. Available online: https://jimbakkershow.com/watch/?guid=3485 (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Johnston, Michael V. 2009. Plasticity in the Developing Brain: Implications for Rehabilitation. Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews 15: 94–101. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kirsch, Adam. 2009. The Truman No-Show. The New Republic. September 14. Available online: https://newrepublic.com/article/69246/the-truman-no-show (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Klinger, Jerry. n.d. Undated. Revered William E. Blackstone: Brandeis, Wilson and the Reverend Who Changed History. Available online: http://www.jewish-american-society-for-historic-preservation.org/images/Brandeis_Blackstone_article.pdf (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Lederhendler, Eli. 2008. Classless: On the Social Status of Jews in Russia and Eastern Europe in the Late Nineteenth Century. Comparative Studies in Society and History 50: 509–34. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lewis, Donald M. 2010. The Origins of Christian Zionism: Lord Shaftesbury and Evangelical Support for a Jewish Homeland. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [Google Scholar]
- Lovett, Samuel. 2019. Trump Is ‘the Chosen One, Sent by God to Do Great Things,’ Says President’s Adviser. The Independent. November 25. Available online: https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/us-politics/trump-rick-perry-chosen-one-god-impeachment-ukraine-fox-news-a9216436.html (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Luce, Caroline E. 2017. Jewish Socialists in the Land of Sunshine: Freedom, Springtime and the Pesakh Spirit of the Future. Shofar 35: 21–41. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mainz, Valerie. 1996. The Picturing of Jews in History (From Napoleon to Poussin but Then Not Back Again). Paragraph 19: 205–19. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mart, Michelle. 2000. Constructing a Universal Ideal: Anti-Semitism, American Jews, and the Founding of Israel. Modern Judaism 20: 181–208. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- McEwen, Bruce S. 2016. In Pursuit of Resilience: Stress, Epigenetics, and Brain Plasticity. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1373: 56–64. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- McGuire, Paul, and Troy Anderson. 2018. Trumpocalypse: The End-Times President, a Battle Against the Globalist Elite, and the Countdown to Armageddon. New York: Faith Words. [Google Scholar]
- Mead, Walter Russell. 2008. The New Israel and the Old: Why Gentile Americans Back the Jewish State. Foreign Affairs 87: 28–46. [Google Scholar]
- MEC (Mikdash Educational Center). 2021a. About the Mikdash Educational Center. Mikdash Education Center. Available online: https://en.hamikdash.org.il/about-the-center/ (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- MEC (Mikdash Educational Center). 2021b. The Temple Coins. Mikdash Education Center. Available online: https://en.hamikdash.org.il/ (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Merkley, Paul C. 1998. The Politics of Christian Zionism, 1891–1948. New York: Routledge. [Google Scholar]
- Merkley, Paul C. 2004. American Presidents, Religion, and Israel: The Heirs of Cyrus. Westport: Praeger Publishers. [Google Scholar]
- Merriam-Webster. n.d. Plasticity. Available online: https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/plasticity (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Mitchell, Chris. 2017. ‘I See Us in the Middle of Prophecy!’ Mike Evans Has 30M Evangelicals Praying for Jerusalem. CBN News. December 12. Available online: https://www1.cbn.com/cbnnews/israel/2017/december/mike-evans-we-rsquo-re-in-the-middle-of-prophecy (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Mitchell, Chris. 2019. Could President Trump be Like Queen Esther? The Jerusalem Post. March 31. Available online: https://www.jpost.com/opinion/could-president-trump-be-like-queen-esther-585283 (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Mouly, Ruth, and Roland Robertson. 1983. Zionism in American Premillenarian Fundamentalism. American Journal of Theology & Philosophy 4: 97–109. [Google Scholar]
- NBC News. 2020. Christian Leaders Pray Over Trump during Launch of Evangelicals For Trump Coalition. NBC News (YouTube). January 3. Available online: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HrBvMFJ_drs (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Netanyahu, Benjamin. 2018. Remarks by President Trump and Prime Minister Netanyahu of Israel before Bilateral Meeting. In Trump White House Archives; March 5. Available online: https://trumpwhitehouse.archives.gov/briefings-statements/remarks-president-trump-prime-minister-netanyahu-israel-bilateral-meeting-2/ (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- O’Brien, Charles H. 1969. Ideas of Religious Toleration at the Time of Joseph II. A Study of the Enlightenment among Catholics in Austria. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 59: 1–80. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Obenzinger, Hilton. 2005. On Being a Traitor. JAC 25: 245–56. [Google Scholar]
- Pencower, Monty Noam. 2004. The Venting of Presidential Spleen: Harry S. Truman’s Jewish Problem. The Jewish Quarterly Review 94: 615–24. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Pew Research Center. 2018. An Examination of the 2016 Electorate, Based on Validated Voters. Pew Research Center. August 9. Available online: https://www.pewresearch.org/politics/2018/08/09/an-examination-of-the-2016-electorate-based-on-validated-voters/ (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Pirro, Jeanine. 2018. Pirro Praises President Trump For Moving US Embassy. Fox News. May 13. Available online: https://www.foxnews.com/opinion/judge-jeanine-pirro-trump-sends-the-world-a-message-in-recognizing-jerusalem-as-israels-capital (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Podeh, Elie. 2017. Diversity within a Show of Unity: Commemorating the Balfour Declaration in Israel (1917–2017). Israel Studies 22: 1–30. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Pompeo, Michael R. 2019. The U.S. and Israel: A Friendship for Freedom. U.S. Department of State Archives, July 8. Available online: https://2017-2021.state.gov/the-u-s-and-israel-a-friendship-for-freedom/index.html (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Praeger, Dennis. 2016. In Defense of Pro-Trump Christians. National Review. October 18. Available online: https://www.nationalreview.com/2016/10/pro-trump-christians-unfairly-criticized/ (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Prior, Michael. 2002. The ‘Holy Land’, Zionism, and the Challenge to the Church. New Blackfriars 83: 471–89. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ray, John. 2006. Was George Washington an American Cyrus? The Founder in Xenophon’s “Education of Cyrus” and in American Practice. Mediterranean Studies 15: 151–77. [Google Scholar]
- Reimer, Michael J. 2015. “The Good Dr. Lippe” and Herzl in Basel, 1897: A Translation and Analysis of the Zionist Congress’s Opening Speech. Journal of Israeli History 34: 1–21. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Robins, Walker S. 2016. American Cyrus? Harry Truman, the Bible, and the Palestine Question. Journal of Church and State 59: 447–65. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Rodriguez, Sarah. 2016. Interview Addresses Trump Endorsement. Liberty Champion. March 8. Available online: https://www.liberty.edu/champion/2016/03/falwell-speaks/ (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Salmon, Yosef. 1978. Ideology and Reality in the Bilu “Aliyah”. Harvard Ukrainian Studies 2: 430–66. [Google Scholar]
- Sanhedrin. 2021. The Sanhedrin Initiative. The Sanhedrin. Available online: http://www.thesanhedrin.org/en/index.php/The_Sanhedrin_Initiative (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Schechter, Ronald. 2003. Obstinate Hebrews: Representations of Jews in France, 1715–1815. University of California. Berkley: University of California Press. [Google Scholar]
- Schölch, Alexander. 1992. Britain in Palestine, 1838–1882: The Roots of the Balfour Policy. Journal of Palestine Studies 22: 39–56. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Shaked, Ayelet. 2017. Message posted on Twitter. @Ayelet_Shaked. December 16. Available online: https://twitter.com/Ayelet__Shaked/status/938481560520716288 (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Shannon, Kelly J. 2012. Truman and the Middle East. In A Companion to Harry S. Truman. Edited by Daniel S. Margolies. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 362–88. [Google Scholar]
- Shavit, Yaacov. 1990. Cyrus King of Persia and the Return to Zion: A Case of Neglected Memory. History and Memory 2: 51–83. [Google Scholar]
- Shavit, Yaacov. 1991. Realism and Messianism in Zionism and the Yishuv. In Jews and Messianism in the Modern Era: Metaphor and Meaning. Edited by Jonathan Frankel. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 100–27. [Google Scholar]
- Shulim, Joseph J. 1945. Napoleon I as the Jewish Messiah: Some Contemporary Conceptions in Virginia. Jewish Social Studies 7: 275–80. [Google Scholar]
- Slomovitz, Philip. 1953. Harry S. Truman: The Modern Cyrus. The Jewish News. January 23. Available online: https://digital.bentley.umich.edu/djnews/djn.1953.01.23.001/2 (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Smidt, Corwin E. 2017. The Role of Religion in the 2016 American Presidential Election. Zeitschrift für Religion, Gesellschaft und Politik 1: 133–62. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Smith, Joseph. 1908. History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. Volume 4. The Project Gutenberg EBook. Available online: https://www.gutenberg.org/files/60708/60708-h/60708-h.htm#CHAPTERIXfn4 (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Steensland, Brian, and Eric L. Wright. 2014. American Evangelicals and Conservative Politics: Past, Present, and Future. Political Sociology 8: 705–17. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Strang, Stephen E. 2017. God and Donald Trump. Lake Mary: Front Line. [Google Scholar]
- Strang, Stephen E. 2020. God, Trump, and the 2020 Election. Lake Mary: Front Line. [Google Scholar]
- Strang Report. 2016a. Is Donald Trump America’s Cyrus? With Lance Wallnau. Charisma Podcast Network. May 6. Available online: http://www.charismapodcastnetwork.com/show/strangreport/fa261ca761fb800f76c6804ed34998f5/Is-Donald-Trump-America’s-Cyrus%3F-with-Lance-Wallnau (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Strang Report. 2016b. Donald Trump Is the Wrecking Ball to the Spirit of Political Correctness with Lance Wallnau Part One. Charisma Podcast Network. August 18. Available online: http://www.charismapodcastnetwork.com/show/strangreport/1dd0db3aec927e584752fa6474d618a2/Donald-Trump-is-the-Wrecking-Ball-to-the-Spirit-of-Political-Correctness-with-Lance-Wallnau-Part-One (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Strang Report. 2016c. How Is Donald Trump Like King Cyrus with Lance Wallnau Part Two. Charisma Podcast Network. August 18. Available online: http://www.charismapodcastnetwork.com/show/strangreport/7a82ac1dc67d8da2814fcc8d792e9a75/How-is-Donald-Trump-Like-King-Cyrus-with-Lance-Wallnau-Part-Two (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Strang Report. 2016d. Donald Trump Is Fulfilling the Idea of Common Grace with Lance Wallnau Part Three. Charisma Podcast Network. August 18. Available online: http://www.charismapodcastnetwork.com/show/strangreport/f2ed67a45b3b7f6f4d16b73b8097e73d/Donald-Trump-is-Fulfilling-the-Idea-of-Common-Grace--with-Lance-Wallnau-Part-Three (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Strang Report. 2016e. God Is Raising Up Trump with Lance Wallnau. Charisma Podcast Network. September 29. Available online: http://www.charismapodcastnetwork.com/show/strangreport/950eca02f9c9b5e7eaa9882caabd3e73/God-is-Raising-Up-Trump-with-Lance-Wallnau (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Strang Report. 2016f. God is Raising Up Trump with Lance Wallnau Pt. 2. Charisma Podcast Network. September 29. Available online: http://www.charismapodcastnetwork.com/show/strangreport/34bd90031abf7007ed5f4929b55553fb/God-is-Raising-Up-Trump-with-Lance-Wallnau-Pt.-2 (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Strang Report. 2016g. Lance Wallnau: What God Is Saying during the 2016 Presidential Election. Charisma Podcast Network. November 4. Available online: http://www.charismapodcastnetwork.com/show/strangreport/079320ec028e38f42d2a8eba40b3b857/Lance-Wallnau%3A-What-God-is-saying-during-the-2016-presidential-election (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Stronach, David. 2013. Cyrus and the Kingship of Anshan: Further Perspectives. Iran 51: 55–69. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sutton, Matthew A. 2014. American Apocalypse: A History of Modern Evangelicalism. Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. [Google Scholar]
- Taylor, Alan R. 1964. Zionist Ideology: An Interpretive Analysis. Middle East Journal 18: 431–42. [Google Scholar]
- Throckmorton, Warren. 2015. Donald Trump Shall Become the Trumpet: My Entry for Best Article in the “Wait, This Isn’t Parody?” Category. Wthrockmorton (Blog). July 29. Available online: https://www.wthrockmorton.com/2015/07/29/donald-trump-shall-become-the-trumpet-my-entry-for-best-article-in-the-wait-this-isnt-parody-category/ (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Trangerud, Hanne Amanda. 2021. The Trump Prophecies and the Mobilization of Evangelical Voters. Studies in Religion/Sciences Religieuses, forthcoming. [Google Scholar]
- von Buseck, Craig. 2019. I am Cyrus: Harry S. Truman and the Rebirth of Israel. Barton Oaks: Straight Street Books. [Google Scholar]
- Wallnau, Lance. 2015. Is Donald Trump Being Used as a Trumpet? Facebook: @LanceWallnau. July 26. Available online: https://www.facebook.com/LanceWallnau/posts/is-donald-trump-being-used-as-a-trumpet-as-we-approach-the-feast-of-trumpets-hea/10153525492474936/ (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Wallnau, Lance. 2016a. Prophecy: God Sent Donald Trump to Wage War against Destructive Spirits. Charisma News. August 16. Available online: https://www.charismanews.com/opinion/59276-prophecy-god-sent-donald-trump-to-wage-war-against-destructive-spirits (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Wallnau, Lance. 2016b. Donald Trump Key to Isaiah 45 Prophecy? Charisma News. August 17. Available online: https://www.charismanews.com/opinion/59304-donald-trump-key-to-isaiah-45-prophecy (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Wallnau, Lance. 2016c. Is Trump Himself a Prophet? This Businessman Says Yes! Charisma News. August 18. Available online: https://www.charismanews.com/opinion/59307-is-trump-himself-a-prophet-this-businessman-says-yes (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Wallnau, Lance. 2016d. God’s Chaos Candidate: Donald J. Trump and the American Unraveling. Keller: Killer Sheep Media. [Google Scholar]
- Wallnau, Lance. 2016e. Why I Believe Trump Is the Prophesied President. Charisma News. October 5. Available online: https://www.charismanews.com/politics/opinion/60378-why-i-believe-trump-is-the-prophesied-president (accessed on 30 March 2021).
- Wallnau, Lance, and Mercedes Sparks. 2020. God’s Chaos Code: The Shocking Blueprint that Reveals 5 Keys to the Destiny of Nations. Keller: Killer Sheep Media. [Google Scholar]
- Waters, Matt. 2004. Cyrus and the Achaemenids. Iran 42: 91–102. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Weider, Ben. 1997. Napoleon and the Jews. The International Napoelonic Society. Available online: https://www.napoleon-series.org/ins/weider/c_jews.html (accessed on 30 March 2021).
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
© 2021 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Trangerud, H.A. The American Cyrus: How an Ancient King Became a Political Tool for Voter Mobilization. Religions 2021, 12, 354. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel12050354
Trangerud HA. The American Cyrus: How an Ancient King Became a Political Tool for Voter Mobilization. Religions. 2021; 12(5):354. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel12050354Chicago/Turabian Style
Trangerud, Hanne Amanda. 2021. "The American Cyrus: How an Ancient King Became a Political Tool for Voter Mobilization" Religions 12, no. 5: 354. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel12050354