The Effect of Employee and Customer Religious Beliefs on Business Operating Decisions
- Africa: The construction of the over 100 Egyptian pyramids thus far found required a large, though unknown, percentage of GDP, required operational techniques normal life did not, and caused the need for labor specialization and supply chain operations (moving from quarry to placement and stacking of multi-ton stones). It impacted location decisions as well, as a fairly recent find of the “workers village” indicates a city dedicated to housing up to 20,000 full-time pyramid construction workers over the course of several projects (National Geographic 2016).
- Europe: in the 1300’s cathedral construction required massive amounts of stone to be quarried, moved, and cut. The populace largely lived in mud or wood walled homes. The process of building 100 foot tall edifices was the only construction at the time that required scaffolding.
- South America: The entire city of Machu Picchu (Peru, circa 1300) is thought to be largely built for ceremonial and religious purposes. Relatedly, in the Inca Peruvian town of Sacsayhuaman, built between 1100 and 1300, hundreds of thousands of tons of stone were hauled 12 kilometers, uphill, with no pack animals, to commemorate their gods. The largest single stone weighed 120 tons, which no doubt consumed enormous resources.
- Asia: The Potala Palace in Tibet was built in 1645 to be the home of the Dalai Lama, their religious leader, and was the largest building in Tibet with over 1000 rooms. At the time of the Chinese takeover in 1959 it is estimated there were 6000 Buddhist monasteries in Tibet supporting a population of 1.2 million, and 1 in 6 men were monks/lamas (BBC 2018; Tu 1997). The stupa (mausoleum) of the 5th Dalai Lama contains 3727 kilograms of gold (today worth $150 million) 18,680 pearls and other semi-precious stones.
2. Literature Review and Theory
2.1. Prior Literature
4.1. Transportation/Revenue Management
4.2. Segregated Public Accommodations
“Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “And stay in your houses, and do not display yourselves like that of the times of ignorance” [al-Ahzaab 33:33]. Although this is addressed to the wives of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), it also applies to the believing women.”
5.4. Night Shift
5.6. Purdah Summary
Analects of Confucius, book 13, verse 18: “Talking with Confucius, the lord of She [Note: “She” is a place] said, ‘In our district there’s a fellow called Honest Body. When his father stole a sheep the son testified against him. Confucius said, ‘In our district the honest people are different than that. A father covers up for his son; a son covers up for his father. There is honesty in that, too.”Analects book 9, verse 25: “The Master said, put prime value on loyalty and trustworthiness.”
7. Christianity: Jehovah’s Witness and Christian Science
Conflicts of Interest
- Abdul-Aziz, Zalina, J. F. L. Chan, and Andrew V. Metcalfe. 2000. Quality practices in the manufacturing industry in the UK and Malaysia. Total Quality Management 11: 1053–64. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Adam, Everett E., Lawrence M. Corbett, Benito E. Flores, Norma J. Harrison, T.S. Lee, Boo-Ho Rho, Jaime Ribera, Danny Samson, and Roy Westbrook. 1997. An international study of quality improvement approach and firm performance. International Journal of Operations & Production Management 17: 842–73. [Google Scholar]
- Al-Munajjid. 2018. Islam Question and Answer. Available online: https://islamqa.info/en/106815 (accessed on 5 October 2018).
- Amin, Sajeda. 1999. The Poverty-Purdah trap in rural Bangladesh. Development and Change 28: 213–33. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Anonymous. 2013. ‘Ghostly’ Happenings: Karachi Factory Workers’ Mass Hysteria. Dawn. Available online: https://www.dawn.com/news/1052767/ghostly-happenings-karachi-factory-workers-mass-hysteria (accessed on 10 March 2018).
- Anonymous. 2014. Evil Spirits in the Workplace Send Nepalese out in Protest. The Star Online. Available online: http://www.thestar.com.my/News/Nation/2014/01/13/Evil-spirits-in-the-workplace-send-Nepalese-out-in-protest/ (accessed on 7 December 2015).
- Anonymous. 2016. Everybody into the pool. New York Times, June 1. [Google Scholar]
- Basole, Amit. 2012. Knowledge, Gender, and Production Relations in India’s Informal Economy. Ph.D. thesis, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA. [Google Scholar]
- Baz, I. 2018. Fatwas of Ibn Baz. Available online: http://www.alifta.net/fatawa/fatawaDetails.aspx?languagename=en&View=Page&PageID=5359&PageNo=1&BookID=14 (accessed on 10 October 2018).
- BBC. 2018. Available online: Bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/Buddhism/subdivisions/Tibetan_1.shtml (accessed on 10 October 2018).
- Cabanas, Walter, and Texas A&M University, Houston, TX, USA. 2014. Personal communication. Cabanas is an oil firm executive.
- Calder, Bobby J., Lynn W. Phillips, and Alice M. Tybout. 1981. Designing research for application. Journal of Consumer Research 8: 197–207. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Calder, Bobby J., Lynn W. Phillips, and Alice M. Tybout. 1982. The concept of external validity. Journal of Consumer Research 9: 240–44. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Calder, Bobby J., Lynn W. Phillips, and Alice M. Tybout. 1983. Beyond external validity. Journal of Consumer Research 10: 112–14. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Campbell, Heidi. 2010. When Religion Meets New Media. London: Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group. [Google Scholar]
- Chin, Kwai-Sang, Hongyi Sun, Yan Xu, and Hongming Hua. 2002. A comparative study of quality management practices in Hong Kong and Shanghai manufacturing industries. International Journal of Management 19: 576. [Google Scholar]
- Clark, N. 2016. Faith and its consequences. New York Times, February 21. [Google Scholar]
- Colligan, Michael J., James W. Pennebaker, and Lawrence R. Murphy. 1982. A review of mass psychogenic illness in work settings. In Mass Psychogenic Illness: A Social Psychological Analysis. Edited by Michael J. Colligan, James W. Pennebaker and Lawrence R. Murphy. Hillsdale: L. Erlbaum Associates. [Google Scholar]
- Continental Gold. 2018. Presentation to Faculty Development in International Business, U. Miami School of Business, in Medellin, Columbia. June 14. [Google Scholar]
- Corbett, L. M., E. E. Adam Jr., N. J. Harrison, T. S. Lee, B. H. Rho, and D. Samson. 1998. A study of quality management practices and performance in Asia and the South Pacific. International Journal of Production Research 36: 2597–607. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Crapanzano, Vincent. 1977. Introduction. In Case Studies in Spirit Possession. Edited by Vincent Crapanzano and Vivian Garrison. New York: Wiley and Sons. [Google Scholar]
- Dannecker, Peter. 2002. Between Conformity and Resistance: Women Garment Workers in Bangladesh. Dhaka: University Press, Ltd. [Google Scholar]
- Dawson, John. 2011a. Religion in Medicine, Volume I. Bloomington: Xlibris Corp. [Google Scholar]
- Dawson, John. 2011b. Religion in Medicine, Volume II. Bloomington: Xlibris Corp. [Google Scholar]
- Dedeoglu, Saniye. 2008. Women Workers in Turkey. London: Tauris Academic Studies. [Google Scholar]
- Ewest, Timothy, ed. 2018. Faith and Work: Christian Perspectives, Research and Insights into the Movement. Charlotte: IAP. [Google Scholar]
- Filistrucchi, Lapo, and Jens Prüfer. 2018. Faithful strategies: How religion shapes nonprofit management. Management Science 65: 188–208. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ganoza, R. 2018. Presentation to Faculty Development in International Business, Lima, Peru, June 4. Mr. Ganoza is VP-Business Development. Lima: Minera Buenaventura. [Google Scholar]
- GMRG. 2018. Available online: Gmrg.org/publications (accessed on 26 July 2018).
- Goreau, Angeline. 1996. Land of Elves and Trolls and Pretty Ponies. New York Times. Available online: https://www.nytimes.com/1996/05/12/magazine/land-of-elves-and-trolls-and-pretty-ponies.html (accessed on 9 October 2018).
- Guggenheim, Noga, and Orit Taubman-Ben-Ari. 2014. Women who DARE: driving attitudes and road experiences among ultraorthodox women in Israel. Gender, Place & Culture 21: 533–49. [Google Scholar]
- Harpin, Lee. 2017. Police board easyJet Tel Aviv to London Flight. The Jewish Chronicle. February 15. Available online: Thejc.com/news/uk-news/easyjet-1.432766 (accessed on 23 February 2017).
- Hauksdottir, G. 2016. Construction disrupted by elves or hidden people in Iceland. IceNews. Available online: http://www.icenews.is/2016/07/15/construction-disrupted-by-elves-or-hidden-people-in-iceland/#axzz4fBeMr1Rb (accessed on 24 April 2017).
- Hines, Nickolaus. 2018. 4 Times Iceland Made Major Decisions Based on Elves. Available online: https://allthatsinteresting.com/iceland-elves (accessed on 8 October 2018).
- Hussain, Nazmul, and Farasat Ali Siddiqui. 2013. Muslim female work participation in West Bengal, India. Women’s Studies 42: 291–313. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- International Labour Organization. 2001. General Survey of the Reports Concerning the Night Work (Women) Convention, 1919 (No.4), the Night Work (Women) Conventions (Revised), 1948 (No.89) and the Protocol of 1990 to the Night Work (Women) Convention (Revised) 1948. Geneva: International Labour Organization. [Google Scholar]
- International Labour Organization. 2012. Promoting the ILO Home Work Convention (C177) and the Rights of Homeworkers. Geneva: ILO. [Google Scholar]
- Kessler, C. 1977. Confict and sovereighty in Kelatan Malay spirit possession and shamanism. In Case Studies in Spirit Possession. Edited by Vincent Crapanzano and Vivian Garrison. New York: Wiley, pp. 295–331. [Google Scholar]
- Khattak, Saba Gul. 2002. Subcontracted work and gender relations: The case of Pakistan. In The Hidden Assembly Line: Gender Dynamics of Subcontracted Work in a Global Economy. Edited by Balakrishnan R. Bloomfield: Kumarian Press. [Google Scholar]
- Lewis, Michael. 2011. Boomerang: Travels in the New Third World. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. [Google Scholar]
- Lyall, Sarah. 2005. Building in Iceland? Better clear it with the elves first. New York Times. July 13. Available online: https://www.nytimes.com/2005/07/13/world/europe/building-in-iceland-better-clear-it-with-the-elves-first.html (accessed on 8 October 2018).
- Lynch, John. 1982. On the external validity of experiments in consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research 9: 225–39. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lynch, John. 1983. The role of external validity in theoretical research. Journal of Consumer Research 10: 109–11. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Marshall, Andrew. 2011. What’s causing ‘mass faintings’ at Cambodian factories? Time. September 20. Available online: Content.time.com/time/printout/0,8816,2093516,00.html (accessed on 19 December 2014).
- McAlexander, James H, Beth Leavenworth Dufault, Diane M. Martin, and John W. Schouten. 2014. The marketization of religion: Field, capital, and consumer identity. Journal of Consumer Research 41: 858–75. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- McCann, Dennis. 1995. A word to the reader. In On Moral Business, Classical and Contemporary Resources for Ethics in Economic Life. Edited by Max L. Stackhouse, Dennis P. McCann, Shirley J. Roels and Preston N. Williams. Michigan: Eerdsmans Publishing, Grand Rapids. [Google Scholar]
- McGuire, Sean T., Thomas C. Omer, and Nathan Y. Sharp. 2011. The impact of religion on financial reporting irregularities. The Accounting Review 87: 645–73. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mehta, Hemant. 2018. Ultra-Orthodox Jews delayed a flight (again) by refusing to sit next to women. Friendly Atheist. July 2. Available online: http://friendlyatheist.patheos.com/2018/07/02/ultra-orthodox-jews-delayed-a-flight-again-by-refusing-to-sit-next-to-women/ (accessed on 10 October 2018).
- Metters, R., D. Marshall, and M. Pagel. Forthcoming. Culture research in operations management. Foundations and Trends in Operations Management.
- Miller, David W., and Timothy Ewest. 2013. The present state of workplace spirituality: A literature review considering context, theory, and measurement/assessment. Journal of Religious & Theological Information 12: 29–54. [Google Scholar]
- Mirza, Jasmin. 1999. Accommodating purdah to the workplace: gender relationships in the office sector in Pakistan. The Pakistan Development Review 38: 187–206. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mitroff, Ian I. 2003. Do not promote religion under the guise of spirituality. Organization 10: 375–82. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Nash, June. 1993. We Eat the Mines and the Mines Eat Us: Dependency and Exploitation in Bolivian Tin Mines. New York: Columbia University Press. [Google Scholar]
- National Geographic. 2016. The Pyramid Builders’ Village in Egypt. Available online: https://www.nationalgeographic.com.au/history/the-pyramid-builders-village-in-egypt.aspx (accessed on 19 September 2018).
- Ong, Aihwa. 1987. Spirits of Resistance and Capitalist Discipline: Factory Women in Malaysia. Albany: State University of New York Press. [Google Scholar]
- Ong, Aihwa. 1988. The production of possession: Spirits and the multinational corporation in Malaysia. American Ethnologist 15: 28–42. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Phoon, W.H. 1982. Outbreaks of mass hysteria at workplaces in Singapore: some patterns and modes of presentation. In Mass Psychogenic Illness: A Social Psychological Analysis. Edited by Michael J. Colligan, James W. Pennebaker and Lawrence R. Murphy. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [Google Scholar]
- Pietkiewicz, Igor. 2008. Culture, Religion, and Ethonomedicine. New York: University Press of America. [Google Scholar]
- Radford, Benjamin. 2013. Is a Ghost Lurking in a Factory Toilet? LiveScience. Available online: http://www.livescience.com/37644-ghost-exorcism-bangladesh.html (accessed on 16 July 2015).
- Raghunathan, T. S., S. Subba Rao, and Luis E. Solis. 1997. A comparative study of quality practices: USA, China and India. Industrial Management & Data Systems 97: 192–200. [Google Scholar]
- Rao, S. Subba, T.S. Raghunathan, and Luis E. Solis. 1997. A comparative study of quality practices and results in India, China and Mexico. Journal of Quality Management 2: 235–50. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Rowbotham, Sheila. 1993. Homeworkers Worldwide. London: The Merlin Press. [Google Scholar]
- Rungtusanatham, M., C. Forza, B. Koka, F. Salvador, and W. Nie. 2005. TQM across multiple countries: Convergence hypothesis versus national specificity arguments. Journal of Operations Management 23: 43–63. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Samaddar, Subhashish, and Savitha Kadiyala. 2006. Information systems outsourcing: Replicating an existing framework in a different cultural context. Journal of Operations Management 24: 910–31. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Schwartzman, Helen. 1993. Ethnography in Organizations. Thousand Oaks: Sage. [Google Scholar]
- Shahriari, Sara. 2017. Bolivia’s witch markets offer llama fetuses and more. Huffington Post. Available online: https://www.huffingtonpost.com/2009/10/30/bolivias-witch-markets-of_n_339981.html (accessed on 3 October 2018).
- Shapira-Rosenberg. 2010. Excluded, for God’s Sake: Gender Segregation in Public Space in Israel. Tel Aviv: Israel Religious Action Center. [Google Scholar]
- Shu, Tao, Johan Sulaeman, and P. Eric Yeung. 2012. Local religious beliefs and mutual fund risk-taking behaviors. Management Science 58: 1779–96. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Stackhouse, Max L., Dennis P. McCann, and Shirley J. Roels. 1995. On Moral Business, Classical and Contemporary Resources for Ethics in Economic Life. Grand Rapids: Eerdsmans Publishing. [Google Scholar]
- Staff, Toi. 2018. NY-Israel flight delayed by ultra-Orthodox men’s refusal to sit next to women. The Times of Israel. June 24. Available online: https://www.timesofisrael.com/flight-delayed-over-ultra-orthodox-mens-refusal-to-sit-next-to-women/ (accessed on 10 October 2018).
- Tata, Jasmine, Sameer Prasad, and Jaideep Motwani. 2000. Benchmarking quality management practices: US versus Costa Rica. Multinational Business Review 8: 37. [Google Scholar]
- Taussig, Michael T. 1980. The Devil and Commodity Fetishism in South America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. [Google Scholar]
- Trompenaars, Fons. 1994. Riding the Waves of Culture. London: International Management Publishers. [Google Scholar]
- Trompenaars, Fons, and Charles Hampden-Turner. 2011. Riding the Waves of Culture: Understanding Diversity in Global Business. Boston: Nicholas Brealey International. [Google Scholar]
- Tu, D. 1997. Tibet’s Population: Past and Present. China Population Today 14: 4–6. [Google Scholar] [PubMed]
- United, Airlines. 2017. Personal communication from United employees. [Google Scholar]
- Wainwright, Oliver. 2015. In Iceland, ‘respect the elves—Or else’. The Guardian. Available online: https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2015/mar/25/iceland-construction-respect-elves-or-else (accessed on 9 October 2018).
- Wallace, Julia. 2014. Workers of the world, faint! The New York Times, January 19, 4. [Google Scholar]
- Watson, Burton. 2007. The Analects of Confucius. New York: Columbia U. Press. [Google Scholar]
- Woodhead, Linda, and Christopher Partridge. 2016. Religions in the Modern World: Traditions and Transformations. Edited by Woodhead Linda, Christopher Partridge and Hiroko Kawanami. London: Routledge, chp. 1. [Google Scholar]
- Woodhead, Linda, Christopher Partridge, and Hiroko Kawanami. 2016. Religions in the Modern World: Traditions and Transformations. London: Routledge. [Google Scholar]
- World Bank. 2011. World Development Report 2012: Gender Equality and Development. Washington: The World Bank. [Google Scholar]
- Yavas, Burhan F. 1995. A comparison on the quality perceptions of US and Asian firms in the electronics industry. MIR: Management International Review 35: 171–88. [Google Scholar]
- Zambia Chamber of Mines. 2015. Presentation by Mining Executives to Faculty Development in International Business Group, U. Lusaka: Maryland CIBER. [Google Scholar]
- Zhao, Xiande, Sharad K. Maheshwari, and Jincheng Zhang. 1995. Benchmarking quality practices in India, China and Mexico. Benchmarking for Quality Management & Technology 2: 20–40. [Google Scholar]
|Religious Tradition||Countries Used in Examples||Issue/Operational Concern|
|Animism||S. America: Bolivia, Peru;|
Asia: Cambodia, Malaysia, Nepal, Singapore
|Islam||Bangladesh, India, Pakistan||Factory location; Shift scheduling; Office layout|
|Judaism||Israel||Technology use; Gender segregation|
|Confuscianism||S. Korea, China||Contract adherence|
© 2019 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Metters, R. The Effect of Employee and Customer Religious Beliefs on Business Operating Decisions. Religions 2019, 10, 479. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel10080479
Metters R. The Effect of Employee and Customer Religious Beliefs on Business Operating Decisions. Religions. 2019; 10(8):479. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel10080479Chicago/Turabian Style
Metters, Richard. 2019. "The Effect of Employee and Customer Religious Beliefs on Business Operating Decisions" Religions 10, no. 8: 479. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel10080479