- Africa: The construction of the over 100 Egyptian pyramids thus far found required a large, though unknown, percentage of GDP, required operational techniques normal life did not, and caused the need for labor specialization and supply chain operations (moving from quarry to placement and stacking of multi-ton stones). It impacted location decisions as well, as a fairly recent find of the “workers village” indicates a city dedicated to housing up to 20,000 full-time pyramid construction workers over the course of several projects (National Geographic 2016).
- Europe: in the 1300’s cathedral construction required massive amounts of stone to be quarried, moved, and cut. The populace largely lived in mud or wood walled homes. The process of building 100 foot tall edifices was the only construction at the time that required scaffolding.
- South America: The entire city of Machu Picchu (Peru, circa 1300) is thought to be largely built for ceremonial and religious purposes. Relatedly, in the Inca Peruvian town of Sacsayhuaman, built between 1100 and 1300, hundreds of thousands of tons of stone were hauled 12 kilometers, uphill, with no pack animals, to commemorate their gods. The largest single stone weighed 120 tons, which no doubt consumed enormous resources.
- Asia: The Potala Palace in Tibet was built in 1645 to be the home of the Dalai Lama, their religious leader, and was the largest building in Tibet with over 1000 rooms. At the time of the Chinese takeover in 1959 it is estimated there were 6000 Buddhist monasteries in Tibet supporting a population of 1.2 million, and 1 in 6 men were monks/lamas (BBC 2018; Tu 1997). The stupa (mausoleum) of the 5th Dalai Lama contains 3727 kilograms of gold (today worth $150 million) 18,680 pearls and other semi-precious stones.
2. Literature Review and Theory
2.1. Prior Literature
4.1. Transportation/Revenue Management
4.2. Segregated Public Accommodations
“Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “And stay in your houses, and do not display yourselves like that of the times of ignorance” [al-Ahzaab 33:33]. Although this is addressed to the wives of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), it also applies to the believing women.”
5.4. Night Shift
5.6. Purdah Summary
Analects of Confucius, book 13, verse 18: “Talking with Confucius, the lord of She [Note: “She” is a place] said, ‘In our district there’s a fellow called Honest Body. When his father stole a sheep the son testified against him. Confucius said, ‘In our district the honest people are different than that. A father covers up for his son; a son covers up for his father. There is honesty in that, too.”Analects book 9, verse 25: “The Master said, put prime value on loyalty and trustworthiness.”
7. Christianity: Jehovah’s Witness and Christian Science
Conflicts of Interest
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|Religious Tradition||Countries Used in Examples||Issue/Operational Concern|
|Animism||S. America: Bolivia, Peru;|
Asia: Cambodia, Malaysia, Nepal, Singapore
|Islam||Bangladesh, India, Pakistan||Factory location; Shift scheduling; Office layout|
|Judaism||Israel||Technology use; Gender segregation|
|Confuscianism||S. Korea, China||Contract adherence|
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