Laser Powder Bed Fusion of a Topology Optimized and Surface Textured Rudder Bulb with Lightweight and Drag-Reducing Design
2. Design of the Rudder Bulb
2.1. Design Requirements and Choices
2.2. Topology Optimization Strategy
2.3. Definition of the Load Cases
- Lift force () generated on rudder accounts approximately for the of the overall lift required, however, due to the changing attack angle, the wing may transmit a variable load. To account for this variation, it is considered to have to be equal to for attack angle, with a direction perpendicular with respect to bulb–wing interface. A magnitude of was assumed with inclinations of with respect to the interface, to account for magnitude and direction variability load cases. The overall drag force () due to the relative motion of the wing and the water, transmitted to the bulb is estimated to be approximately at while increasing up to about in magnitude for attack angle.
- Exceptional circumstances may lead to boat roll up to capsize, during such event, or after, while recovering, the wing opposes resistance to fluid, or it may be used as lever for boat recovery. These situations may be emulated on the bulb by means of a torque action (). The value considered is . This value simulates a force of applied at , as it is approximately the distance of one wing extremity.
- It may happen that the rudder is carried upward due to boat rapid pitch angle change. As a consequence, the wing acts as hydrodynamic resistance, trying to force downward the bulb rear portion with it. The load () is estimated to be at max . This load is transmitted to the bulb body by means of wing connecting bolts.
- Bulb overall drag force () at max boat speed condition was estimated to be about . However, for simplicity no change in magnitude was set when dealing with different attack angle conditions.
- During the assembly, the compression state imposed by bolts preload should be considered. Rudder vertical bolt preload () is while preloads on wing bolts ( and ) are each.
2.4. Biomimetic Texture Design
2.5. Fluid Dynamic Behavior of the Fish Scale
3. Materials and Experimental Systems
3.1. Laser Powder Bed Fusion System
3.2. Surface Finishing
3.3. Tensile Test
3.4. Surface Analysis
4. Results and Discussion
4.1. Topology Optimized Model
4.2. Drag Reduction
4.3. Bulb Production
4.4. Surface and Material Properties
- The design step satisfied the mass reduction target. The core mass was reduced by 80.3% (corresponding to of the original core mass) with acceptable increase in elastic deformations and maximum displacements in the order of for the most critical load cases. The final mass composed of the shell and core was reduced by from 452 to 190 g.
- The biomimetic fish scale surfaces were modeled to understand their fluid dynamic behavior. The results showed improved behavior in terms of viscous drag force component which sees a reduction of about .
- The designed rudder hub was manufactured along with specimens to verify the mechanical behavior of the build. The results showed high geometrical fidelity of the scale details, acceptable surface roughness after sandblasting and the desired mechanical properties.
- The results confirm the great potential of using metal AM processes in the naval industry as it combined great geometrical flexibility as well as design and manufacturing in a digital environment. Along with the obtained results, the work shows a framework for the design, manufacturing and verification of the metal AM products for the naval industry with novel features.
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
Appendix A. Load Cases
|Working (0°)||Rudder cruising with 0° wing attack angle||, , , , ,|
|Working (+10°)||Rudder cruising with +10° wing attack angle||, , , , ,|
|Working ( −10°)||Rudder cruising with −10° wing attack angle||, , , , ,|
|Capsize (clockwise)||Rudder rotation in correspondence of bulb longitudinal axis clockwise||, , ,|
|Capsize (counterclockwise)||Rudder rotation in correspondence of bulb longitudinal axis counterclockwise||, , ,|
|RudderUpward||Rudder carried upward by boat vertical translation||, , ,|
|Working (0°, s)||Rudder cruising with 0° wing attack angle and short configuration||, , , , ,|
|Working (+10°, s)||Rudder cruising with +10° wing attack angle and short configuration||, , , , ,|
|Working (−10°, s)||Rudder cruising with −10° wing attack angle and short configuration||, , , , ,|
|Capsize (clockwise, s)||Rudder rotation in correspondence of bulb longitudinal axis clockwise and short configuration||, , ,|
|Capsize (counterclockwise, s)||Rudder rotation in correspondence of bulb longitudinal axis counterclockwise and short configuration||, , ,|
|RudderUpward (s)||Rudder carried upward by boat vertical translation and short configuration||, , ,|
|Working (0°, l)||Rudder cruising with 0° wing attack angle and long configuration||, , , , ,|
|Working (+10°, l)||Rudder cruising with +10° wing attack angle and long configuration||, , , , ,|
|Working (−10°, l)||Rudder cruising with −10° wing attack angle and long configuration||, , , , ,|
|Capsize (clockwise, l)||Rudder rotation in correspondence of bulb longitudinal axis clockwise and long configuration||, ,|
|Capsize (counterclockwise, l)||Rudder rotation in correspondence of bulb longitudinal axis counterclockwise and long configuration||, , ,|
|RudderUpward (l)||Rudder carried upward by boat vertical translation and long configuration||, , ,|
Appendix B. Topological Optimization Runs
Appendix C. Rudder Bulb Model Design and Support Preparation
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|Lift force||Rudder wing lift action||||600|
|Wing drag force||Rudder wing motion with respect to water||||34|
|Capsize torque||Torque due to capsizing of boat||||6.25|
|Wing vertical resistance||Resistance to vertical translation of the wing||||400|
|Bulb drag force||Bulb motion with respect to water||||50|
|Rudder vertical bolt preload||Compression due to assembly||||60|
|Wing bolts preloads||Compression due to assembly||||125|
|Chamber oxygen concentration||[%]||0.1|
|Inert gas type||[–]||Ar|
|Shielding gas flow rate||||0.8|
|Preheating temperature ()||100|
|Laser spot diameter ()||||100|
|Layer thickness ()||||50|
|Layer scan strategy||[–]||No pattern|
|Scan direction rot. layer by layer||||67|
|Laser power ()||||345|
|Scan speed ()||||1500|
|Hatch distance ()||||0.10|
|Run Name||Mass Target||Overhang Control||Core Mass||Core Mass|
| wrt. Original||[Yes/No]|||| wrt. Original|
|D||15||Yes—45° printing orientation||0.061||14|
|E||15||Yes—90° printing orientation||0.059||14|
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Scarpellini, A.; Finazzi, V.; Schito, P.; Bionda, A.; Ratti, A.; Demir, A.G. Laser Powder Bed Fusion of a Topology Optimized and Surface Textured Rudder Bulb with Lightweight and Drag-Reducing Design. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9, 1032. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9091032
Scarpellini A, Finazzi V, Schito P, Bionda A, Ratti A, Demir AG. Laser Powder Bed Fusion of a Topology Optimized and Surface Textured Rudder Bulb with Lightweight and Drag-Reducing Design. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 2021; 9(9):1032. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9091032Chicago/Turabian Style
Scarpellini, Alessandro, Valentina Finazzi, Paolo Schito, Arianna Bionda, Andrea Ratti, and Ali Gökhan Demir. 2021. "Laser Powder Bed Fusion of a Topology Optimized and Surface Textured Rudder Bulb with Lightweight and Drag-Reducing Design" Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 9, no. 9: 1032. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9091032