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Article

Metrological Evaluation of Deep-Ocean Thermometers

1
NRC, National Research Council, Ottawa, ON K1A 0R6, Canada
2
Independent Researcher, 2565 JR The Hague, The Netherlands
3
VSL, Dutch Metrology Institute, 2629 JA Delft, The Netherlands
4
NIOZ, Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Department of Ocean Systems, 1790 AB Texel, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Christos Stefanakos
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(4), 398; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9040398
Received: 24 February 2021 / Revised: 2 April 2021 / Accepted: 7 April 2021 / Published: 9 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Oceanography)
An accurate metrological investigation was performed on several units of the two de facto standards for deep-ocean temperature measurements—the SBE35 (the reference thermometer) and the SBE3 (the working thermometer) from SeaBird Scientific. Four SBE35 units were repeatedly calibrated against state-of-the-art fixed-point cells (triple point of water at 0.01 °C and melting point of gallium at 29.7646 °C), with calibration uncertainties of approximately 0.2 mK and 0.5 mK, respectively. Three SBE35 units and one SBE3 unit were calibrated in the temperature range 0 °C to 30 °C, again with sub-millikelvin calibration uncertainties, in a recently-developed water–bath calibration facility. All these calibrations evidenced (1) the deviation of each unit from its original manufacturer’s calibration (up to 1.7 mK), which were found to be inconsistent with the manufacturer’s uncertainty claims and (2) unexplained irreproducibilities, which could not be attributed to the calibration system of up to 1.5 mK. The effect of high pressures (up to 60 MPa) on the response of two SBE35 units was investigated by pressurizing the SBE35 units inside a purpose-built compact pressure enclosure. The results of the pressure investigation confirmed the existence of a small device-dependent pressure effect (approximately 0.3 mK at 60 MPa) and the need for individual temperature–pressure calibration of each SBE35 unit. View Full-Text
Keywords: ocean thermometers; calibration; pressure effect ocean thermometers; calibration; pressure effect
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MDPI and ACS Style

Peruzzi, A.; Bosma, R.; van Geel, J.; Ober, S. Metrological Evaluation of Deep-Ocean Thermometers. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9, 398. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9040398

AMA Style

Peruzzi A, Bosma R, van Geel J, Ober S. Metrological Evaluation of Deep-Ocean Thermometers. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 2021; 9(4):398. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9040398

Chicago/Turabian Style

Peruzzi, Andrea, Rien Bosma, Jan van Geel, and Sven Ober. 2021. "Metrological Evaluation of Deep-Ocean Thermometers" Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 9, no. 4: 398. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9040398

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