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Article

Volume and Nutrient Transports Disturbed by the Typhoon Chebi (2013) in the Upwelling Zone East of Hainan Island, China

1
Laboratory of Coastal Ocean Variation and Disaster Prediction, College of Ocean and Meteorology, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang 524088, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Tropical Oceanography, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510000, China
3
Key Laboratory of Climate, Resources, and Environment in Continental Shelf Sea and Deep Ocean, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang 524088, China
4
Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alice Newton
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(3), 324; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9030324
Received: 4 February 2021 / Revised: 27 February 2021 / Accepted: 6 March 2021 / Published: 15 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Oceanography)
Using cruise observations before and after the typhoon Chebi in August 2013 and those without the typhoon in July 2012, this study investigates variations in current structure, nutrient distribution, and transports disturbed by a typhoon in a typical coastal upwelling zone east of Hainan Island in the northwestern South China Sea. The results show that along-shore northeastward flow dominates the coastal ocean with a volume transport of 0.64 × 106 m3/s in the case without the typhoon. The flow reversed southwestward, with its volume transport halved before the typhoon passage. After the typhoon passage, the flow returned back northeastward except the upper layer in waters deeper than 50 m and the total volume transport decreased to 0.10 × 106 m3/s. For the cross-shelf component, the flow kept shoreward, while transports crossing the 50 m isobath decreased from 0.25, 0.12 to 0.06 × 106 m3/s in the case without the typhoon as well as before and after typhoon passage, respectively. For the along-shore/cross-shelf nutrient transports, SiO32− has the largest value of 866.13/632.74 μmol/s per unit area, NO3 half of that, and PO43− and NO2 one order smaller in the offshore water without the typhoon. The values dramatically decreased to about one-third for SiO32−, NO3, and PO43− after the typhoon, but changed little for NO2. The disturbed wind field and associated Ekman flow and upwelling process may explain the variations in the current and nutrient transports after the typhoon. View Full-Text
Keywords: transport; nutrient; typhoon; shelf sea; South China Sea transport; nutrient; typhoon; shelf sea; South China Sea
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zheng, M.; Xie, L.; Zheng, Q.; Li, M.; Chen, F.; Li, J. Volume and Nutrient Transports Disturbed by the Typhoon Chebi (2013) in the Upwelling Zone East of Hainan Island, China. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9, 324. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9030324

AMA Style

Zheng M, Xie L, Zheng Q, Li M, Chen F, Li J. Volume and Nutrient Transports Disturbed by the Typhoon Chebi (2013) in the Upwelling Zone East of Hainan Island, China. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 2021; 9(3):324. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9030324

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zheng, Manli, Lingling Xie, Quanan Zheng, Mingming Li, Fajin Chen, and Junyi Li. 2021. "Volume and Nutrient Transports Disturbed by the Typhoon Chebi (2013) in the Upwelling Zone East of Hainan Island, China" Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 9, no. 3: 324. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9030324

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