# Reanalysis of the Sydney Harbor RiverCat Ferry

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

#### 1.1. Previous Studies

#### 1.2. Current Investigation

## 2. Hydrodynamic Theory

#### 2.1. Decomposition of Resistance

#### 2.2. Wave Resistance

#### 2.3. Hydrostatic Resistance

#### 2.4. Transom Hollow

#### 2.5. Frictional Resistance

## 3. Characteristics of the RiverCat

#### 3.1. General Layout

#### 3.2. Demihulls

## 4. Numerical Computations

#### 4.1. Finalized Vessel

#### 4.2. Transformations of the Finalized Demihull

#### 4.3. Wave Resistance

#### 4.4. Model Total Resistance

#### 4.5. Prototype Total Resistance

#### 4.6. Hull Finish

## 5. Conclusions

#### 5.1. Current Investigation

#### 5.2. Future Studies

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## List of Symbols

${A}_{T}$ | Transom area | T | Draft |

${A}_{M}$ | Midship-section area | U | Ship velocity |

B | Overall beam | W | Displacement weight |

${B}_{1}$ | Demihull beam | ${b}_{1}$ | Demihull local beam |

${C}_{A}$ | Correlation allowance | d | Depth of water |

${C}_{B}$ | Block coefficient | ${f}_{F}$ | Frictional-resistance form factor |

${C}_{P}$ | Prismatic coefficient | g | Acceleration due to gravity |

F | Froude number | k | Circular wave number |

${F}_{d}$ | Depth Froude number | ${k}_{x}$ | Longitudinal wave number |

${F}_{\nabla}$ | Volumetric Froude number | ${k}_{y}$ | Transverse wave number |

L | Length | s | Demihull centerplane separation |

${L}_{P}$ | Prototype nominal length | w | Towing-tank or canal width |

$L/{\nabla}^{1/3}$ | Slenderness ratio | x | Longitudinal coordinate |

P | Power | ${x}_{t}$ | Longitudinal coordinate at transom |

${R}_{A}$ | Correlation resistance | y | Transverse coordinate |

${R}_{F}$ | Frictional resistance | z | Vertical coordinate |

${R}_{H}$ | Hydrostatic resistance | $\Delta $ | Model displacement mass |

${R}_{T}$ | Total resistance | ${\Delta}_{P}$ | Prototype displacement mass |

${R}_{W}$ | Wave resistance | ${\zeta}_{t}$ | Free-surface elevation on face of transom |

${R}_{a}$ | Aerodynamic resistance | $\eta $ | Propulsion efficiency |

${R}_{N}$ | Reynolds number | $\nu $ | Kinematic viscosity of water |

S | Overall wetted-surface area | $\rho $ | Density of water |

${S}_{1}$ | Demihull wetted-surface area | ∇ | Displacement volume |

## References

- Doctors, L.J.; Renilson, M.R.; Parker, G.; Hornsby, N. Waves and Wave Resistance of a High-Speed River Catamaran. In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Fast Sea Transportation (FAST ’91), Norges Tekniske Høgskole, Trondheim, Norway, June 1991; Volume 1, pp. 35–52. Available online: https://repository.tudelft.nl/islandora/object/uuid%3A133e695e-1a70-4a0d-b99a-17c25aeace92 (accessed on 8 February 2021).
- Hornsby, N.; Parker, G.; Doctors, L.J.; Renilson, M.R. The Design, Development, and Construction of a 35-Metre Low-Wash Fast Catamaran River Ferry. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Maritime and Shipping Conference (IMAS ’91), The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia, 11–13 November 1991; pp. 41–47. [Google Scholar]
- Renilson, M.R. Resistance Tests, Powering Estimates and Wake Wave Prediction for a 35 m Ferry; Report 89/T/13; Australian Maritime College, AMC Search Limited: Mowbray, TAS, Australia, 1989; p. 63+i. [Google Scholar]
- Doctors, L.J. On the Great Trimaran-Catamaran Debate. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Fast Sea Transportation (FAST ’99), Seattle, WA, USA, 31 August–2 September 1999; pp. 283–296. [Google Scholar]
- Froude, W. On Experiments with H.M.S. ‘Greyhound’. Trans. Inst. Nav. Archit.
**1874**, 15, 36–59. [Google Scholar] - Michell, J.H. The Wave Resistance of a Ship. Philos. Mag.
**1898**, 45, 106–123. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Sretensky, L.N. On the Wave-Making Resistance of a Ship Moving along in a Canal. Philos. Mag.
**1936**, 22, 1005–1013. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Newman, J.N.; Poole, F.A.P. The Wave Resistance of a Moving Pressure Distribution in a Canal. Schiffstechnik
**1962**, 9, 21–26. [Google Scholar] - Doctors, L.J.; Day, A.H. Resistance Prediction for Transom-Stern Vessels”. In Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Fast Sea Transportation (FAST ’97), Sydney, Australia, 21–23 July 1997; Volume 2, pp. 743–750. [Google Scholar]
- Doctors, L.J. Hydrodynamics of High-Performance Marine Vessels, 2nd ed.; CreateSpace: Charleston, SC, USA, 2018; Volume 1, pp. 1–421+li. [Google Scholar]
- Toby, A.S. The Evolution of Round Bilge Fast Attack Craft Hull Forms. Nav. Eng. J.
**1987**, 99, 52–62. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Toby, A.S. U.S. High Speed Destroyers, 1919–1942: Hull Proportions (to the Edge of the Possible). Nav. Eng. J.
**1997**, 109, 155–177. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Toby, A.S. The Edge of the Possible: U.S. High Speed Destroyers, 1919–1942. Part 2: Secondary Hull Form Parameters. Nav. Eng. J.
**2002**, 114, 55–76. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Clements, R.E. An Analysis of Ship-Model Correlation Data Using the 1957 I.T.T.C. Line. Trans. R. Inst. Nav. Archit.
**1959**, 101, 373–385. [Google Scholar] - Lewis, E.V.Q.Q. Principles of Naval Architecture: Volume II. Resistance, Propulsion and Vibration; Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers: Jersey City, NJ, USA, 1988; p. 327+vi. [Google Scholar]
- de Vahl Davis, G. Numerical Methods in Engineering and Science; Allen & Unwin (Publishers) Ltd.: London, UK, 1986; pp. 286+xvi. [Google Scholar]
- Day, A.H.; Clelland, D.; Doctors, L.J. Unsteady Finite-Depth Effects during Resistance Tests in a Towing Tank. J. Mar. Sci. Technol.
**2009**, 14, 387–397. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Doctors, L.J. A Versatile Hull-Generator Program. In Proceedings of the Twenty-First Century Shipping Symposium, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia, 6 November 1995; pp. 140–158. [Google Scholar]
- Oosterveld, M.W.C.Q.Q. Report of Performance Committee. In Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Towing Tank Conference, The Hague, The Netherlands, September 1978; pp. 359–404. Available online: https://repository.tudelft.nl/islandora/object/uuid%3Ad7ad3bc5-40f8-42b1-a997-be238d791b56 (accessed on 8 February 2021).
- ITTC. Procedure 7.5-02-03-01.4—Recommended Procedures: Performance, Propulsion 1978 ITTC Performance Prediction Method. In Proceedings of the Twenty-Second International Towing Tank Conference, Seoul, Japan, Shanghai, China, 5–11 September 1999; p. 31. [Google Scholar]
- Candries, M.; Atlar, M. On the Drag and Roughness Characteristics of Antifoulings. Trans. R. Inst. Nav. Archit.
**2003**, 145, 107–132. [Google Scholar] - ITTC. Procedure 7.5-03-03-01 Recommended Procedures and Guidelines: Practical Guidelines for Ship Self-Propulsion CFD. In Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh International Towing Tank Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark, 31 August–5 September 2014; p. 9. [Google Scholar]

Quantity | Symbol * | Value |
---|---|---|

Length on waterline | L | 35.00 m |

Demihull beam | ${B}_{1}$ | 1.000 m |

Beam overall | B | 10.06 m |

Draft | T | 1.226 m |

Block coefficient | ${C}_{B}$ | 0.6262 |

Prismatic coefficient | ${C}_{P}$ | 0.6958 |

Slenderness ratio | $L/{\nabla}^{1/3}$ | 11.68 |

Transom–area ratio | ${A}_{T}/{A}_{M}$ | 0.4311 |

Displacement mass | $\Delta $ | 55.00 t |

Power | P | $2\times 335$ kW |

Speed | U | 23 kn |

Index | Parameter | Symbol | Values | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Affine 0 ${}^{\u2020}$ | Affine 1 | Affine 2 | |||

1 * | Slenderness ratio | $L/{\nabla}^{1/3}$ | 11.68 | 14.60 | 17.52 |

2 | Beam-to-draft ratio | ${B}_{1}/T$ | 0.8159 | 1.275 | 1.836 |

3 | Demihull separation | $s/L$ | 0.2589 | 0.3160 | 0.3731 |

4 | Transom-area ratio | ${A}_{T}/{A}_{M}$ | 0.4311 | 0.2156 | 0 |

Assumption | Transport Factor TF * |
---|---|

ITTC (1957) with ${C}_{A}$ = 0 | 11.03 |

ITTC (1957) with ${C}_{A}$ = 0.0004 | 09.52 |

Measured | 09.52 |

Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. |

© 2021 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Doctors, L.J. Reanalysis of the Sydney Harbor RiverCat Ferry. *J. Mar. Sci. Eng.* **2021**, *9*, 215.
https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9020215

**AMA Style**

Doctors LJ. Reanalysis of the Sydney Harbor RiverCat Ferry. *Journal of Marine Science and Engineering*. 2021; 9(2):215.
https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9020215

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Doctors, Lawrence J. 2021. "Reanalysis of the Sydney Harbor RiverCat Ferry" *Journal of Marine Science and Engineering* 9, no. 2: 215.
https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9020215