Cost-Effective Design of Port Approaches Using Simulation Methods Based on the Example of a Modernized Port in the Ustka
- Determination of:
- average ship dimensions and its characteristics like the power of the main engine, rudder type and its area or power of bow thruster,
- safety waterway parameters needed for the safe operation of maximal ships,
- turning place diameter concerning its shape.
- Determination of safety conditions of port operation for:
- admissible meteorological conditions for a given kind of ships and manoeuvres,
- other navigational conditions and limitations like the presence of other ships on berths, use of position fixing systems on the approach, navigational markings, and vessel traffic service.
- Determination of manoeuvring procedures during the entrance, berthing, un-berthing, exit port, and turning for different kinds of ships and propulsion systems.
- Determining the conditions of ship mooring inside the port.
2. The Ustka Port Case Study
2.1. Selected Elements of Ship Mathematical Model Creation
2.2. Selected Elements of Environment Modelling and Conditions Selection during Tests
2.3. The Detailed Sea Trials Performed and Their Conditions
- series 1, 2, and 3—entry to the port of general cargo vessel L = 133 m without rotation and mooring. The purpose is to determine the parameters of the approach waterway and the safety of entrance and mooring energy.
- series 4, 5 and 6—entry from the general cargo carrier port L = 133 m with rotation. The purpose is to define the parameters of the turning place, and waterways parameters during ship’s departure.
3.1. Proposed Method of Reducing Cost and Time of Simulation Analysis
- Determine design water depth considering ships draft and under-keel clearance (H = 9.0 m in the presented study);
- Design basic navigational aids with its minimum as possible number;
- Design the navigable area without simulated embankments so no interaction between the ship and embankments is simulated;
- Display the area layout on the electronic chart and inform the Captains performing the simulations that it is possible to passage the ship over the elements of infrastructure only in justified by environmental conditions cases;
- Execute simulations and analyse the results.
- Analytical methods like PIANC, ROM or Japanese;
- Statistical methods based on generalisation of simulation experiments;
- Fast Time Simulations (FTS) method.
3.2. Real-Time Manoeuvring Simulation MethoD—Limited Task Simulator
3.3. Statistical Methods of Data Processing
The Method of Simulation Result Data Processing
- Maximum waterway area needed for manoeuvring ships (extreme ships positions in all trials),
- Average waterway area needed for manoeuvring ships (defined as mean SMA),
- Waterway area on the given confidence level (defined as SMA on a given confidence level).
3.4. Conducting the Research
- Entrance and departure in no wind conditions (light conditions);
- Entrance to the port with wind NW 11 m/s (moderate condition);
- Entrance to the port with wind NW 17 m/s (severe condition);
- Departure and turning manoeuvre in no wind;
- Departure and turning manoeuvre with wind NW 11 m/s;
- Departure and turning manoeuvre with wind NE 11 m/s.
4. Results of Simulation Research and Discussion
- 95% is the Safe Manoeuvring Area (SMA) at a 95% level of confidence.
- Mean is the average waterway area.
- MAX is the maximal overbound area of all ships in series.
4.1. Comparison of Methods. Discussion
4.2. The Limitation of the “Soft-Bank” Method
- The bank effect cannot be taken into account;
- Limited possibility of taking into account the settlement of the vessel;
- Impossible to take into account an accident in the form of a stranding and collision with embankments or a moored vessel or another civil engineering technical object;
- The psychological impact on the navigator due to a false sense of safety due to not considering the ship’s collision possibility in simulation trials.
- Simulators are widely used tools and proper verification, especially of the simulation hydrodynamic model and hydrometeorological conditions models, should be carried out at the outset to match simulations to reality as closely as possible.
- The simulation method should be carried out by multiplying ship runs. The simulation studies based on a single or very small number of simulations without statistical data processing and experimental plan are questionable and do not present the proper value to port design needs.
- In any real-time simulation project, a very good link between pilots with good local knowledge for validation and provision of domain expertise should be established.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|No.||Name of File||Manoeuvre||Initial Speed (kn)||Wind Speed (m/s)||Wave on the Approach|
|No. of Trials|
|1||1_L133_Wej_0||Entry into port and mooring on the starboard side||6||no||no||15|
|2||2_L133_Wej_NW11||as above||6||NW 11||0.9||15|
|3||3_L133_Wej_NW17||as above||6||NW 17||1.6||15|
|4||4_L133_Wyj_0||Unmooring, turning and leaving port||0||no||no||15|
|5||5_L133_Wyj_NW11||as above||0||NW 11||0.9||15|
|6||6_L133_Wyj_NE11||as above||0||NE 11||0.9||15|
|2||Japanese (OCDI 2009)||55.6 m|
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Łazuga, K.; Quý, N.M.; Gucma, L. Cost-Effective Design of Port Approaches Using Simulation Methods Based on the Example of a Modernized Port in the Ustka. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9, 211. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9020211
Łazuga K, Quý NM, Gucma L. Cost-Effective Design of Port Approaches Using Simulation Methods Based on the Example of a Modernized Port in the Ustka. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 2021; 9(2):211. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9020211Chicago/Turabian Style
Łazuga, Kinga, Nguyễn Minh Quý, and Lucjan Gucma. 2021. "Cost-Effective Design of Port Approaches Using Simulation Methods Based on the Example of a Modernized Port in the Ustka" Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 9, no. 2: 211. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9020211