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Article

Relative Influence of Environmental Factors on Biodiversity and Behavioural Traits of a Rare Mesopelagic Fish, Trachipterus trachypterus (Gmelin, 1789), in a Continental Shelf Front of the Mediterranean Sea

1
Department of Ecological and Biological Sciences, Ichthyogenic Experimental Marine Center (CISMAR), University of Tuscia, 01016 Tarquinia, Italy
2
N. A. Pertsov White Sea Biological Research Station, Department of Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow, Russia
3
Ente Fauna Marina Mediterranea, 96012 Avola, Italy
4
Center for Ecological Genomics and Wildlife Conservation, Department of Zoology, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park 2006, South Africa
5
Department of Physical, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Siena, Via Mattioli 4, 53100 Siena, Italy
6
Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Catania, 95129 Catania, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(8), 581; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8080581
Received: 7 July 2020 / Revised: 29 July 2020 / Accepted: 30 July 2020 / Published: 2 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Fish Research)
Coastal environments can be influenced by water body masses with particular physical, chemical, and biological properties that create favourable conditions for the development of unique planktonic communities. In this study, we investigated a continental shelf front at Ponza Island (Tyrrhenian Sea) and discussed its diversity and complexity in relation to major environmental parameters. Moon phase and current direction were found to play a significant role in shaping species abundance and behaviour. During in situ observations, we also provided the first data on the behaviour of juveniles of a rare mesopelagic species, Trachipterus trachypterus, suggesting the occurrence of Batesian mimicry. View Full-Text
Keywords: Trachipteridae; Ponza Island; upwelling; plankton diversity; Batesian mimicry Trachipteridae; Ponza Island; upwelling; plankton diversity; Batesian mimicry
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    Doi: 10.5281/zenodo.3934365
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    Description: Table 1-Planktonic taxa surveyed at the diving site; Figure 1- a) and b) show respectively the wind rose of Ponza (2011-2015) and Gaeta (2007-present). Map c) and d) show respectively the mean distribution of SST and Salinity between 1987 to present; Figure 2-In the panel a) are presented in descending order the distribution of SST during 9th-11th of April, during 12th-18th of April and during 19th-28tth of April. In the panel b) the polar scatter of wind indicates the direction (polar orientation) and intensity of wind (x-axis). In the panel c) are presented in descending order the distribution of Salinity during 9th-11th of April, during 12th-18th of April and during 19th-28tth of April; Figure 3-Taxa occurrence according to moon phase; Figure 4. The four sampled juvenile specimens of Trachipterus trachypterus from the central Tyrrhenian Sea (A-C), measurements are reported in Table2; Table 2. Morphometric measurements of the four juvenile specimens of Trachipterus trachypterus reported in Figure 4 and collected in the central Tyrrhenian Sea; Plate I. Mating behaviour observed during the surveyed period A) nereids epitokes mating close to the surface; B) details of epitokes releasing eggs; Plate II. Mating behaviour observed during the surveyed period: A) Idioteidae on a feather; B) Sepiolidae; Plate III. Trophic interaction within plankton community, observed during the surveyed period: A) Scyllaridae phyllosoma feeding on a salp, with detail of its peculiar interaction with jellyfish species as a floating support; B) Phylliroe cfr. lichtensteinii feeding on a jellyfish; C) Pelagia noctiluca feeding on a salp; Plate IV. Fish juvenile/larval stages recorded during the expedition: A) Phycidae (Phycis cf. phycis); B) Ipnopidae (Bathypterois sp.) C) Pleuronectiformes; D) Anguilliformes. Video 1-10. Track of behavioural traits of interest.
MDPI and ACS Style

Macali, A.; Semenov, A.; Paladini de Mendoza, F.; Dinoi, A.; Bergami, E.; Tiralongo, F. Relative Influence of Environmental Factors on Biodiversity and Behavioural Traits of a Rare Mesopelagic Fish, Trachipterus trachypterus (Gmelin, 1789), in a Continental Shelf Front of the Mediterranean Sea. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8, 581. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8080581

AMA Style

Macali A, Semenov A, Paladini de Mendoza F, Dinoi A, Bergami E, Tiralongo F. Relative Influence of Environmental Factors on Biodiversity and Behavioural Traits of a Rare Mesopelagic Fish, Trachipterus trachypterus (Gmelin, 1789), in a Continental Shelf Front of the Mediterranean Sea. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 2020; 8(8):581. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8080581

Chicago/Turabian Style

Macali, Armando, Alexander Semenov, Francesco Paladini de Mendoza, Alessia Dinoi, Elisa Bergami, and Francesco Tiralongo. 2020. "Relative Influence of Environmental Factors on Biodiversity and Behavioural Traits of a Rare Mesopelagic Fish, Trachipterus trachypterus (Gmelin, 1789), in a Continental Shelf Front of the Mediterranean Sea" Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 8, no. 8: 581. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8080581

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