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Article

A New Algorithm to Estimate Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient from Secchi Disk Depth

1
Facultad de Ciencias Marinas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Ensenada 22860, Baja California, Mexico
2
Alumni PhD postgraduate program in Coastal Oceanography, Facultad de Ciencias Marinas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Ensenada 22860, Baja California, Mexico
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Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
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Institut d’Investigació per a la Gestió Integrada de Zones Costaneres (IGIC), Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV), 46730 Grau de Gandia, Spain
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Departamento de Plancton y Ecología Marina, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas (IPN-CICIMAR), La Paz 23096, Baja California Sur, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(8), 558; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8080558
Received: 24 June 2020 / Revised: 20 July 2020 / Accepted: 22 July 2020 / Published: 25 July 2020
The vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient Kd (PAR) is used for calculating the euphotic zone, the first optical depth that is important for primary productivity models. Currently, Kd (PAR) can be estimated using an irradiometer or a Secchi disk (SD). The main objective of this work is to define a model that can be applied to a wide range of optical marine conditions to estimate Kd (PAR) by SD. We used irradiance profiles and SD depth (ZSD) from 679 stations in various marine regions. Three parametric models were developed, and their statistical performance was evaluated in view of previous approaches reported and remote sensing data. The best results were obtained with an adaptive model representing three cases: clear-water, turbid-water, and a transition zone (R2 = 0.965, MAE = 0.083, RMSD = 0.239, BIAS = 0.01, and MPI = 0.854). Previous models considering a single optical depth figure at which the SD disappears did not capture the marine optical complexity. Our classification of 113 stations with spectral absorption data into Jerlov water types indicated that no unique correspondence existed between estimated Kd (PAR) and water type, making it ambiguous to associate compatible inherent optical properties and chlorophyll with ZSD. Although obtaining Kd (PAR) from ZSD is simple/low-cost, care should be taken in the methodology used to measure ZSD to ensure consistent results across different optical marine conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: Secchi disk; vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient Kd; Secchi disk optical depth; adaptive model; Secchi disk monitoring approach Secchi disk; vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient Kd; Secchi disk optical depth; adaptive model; Secchi disk monitoring approach
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MDPI and ACS Style

Castillo-Ramírez, A.; Santamaría-del-Ángel, E.; González-Silvera, A.; Frouin, R.; Sebastiá-Frasquet, M.-T.; Tan, J.; Lopez-Calderon, J.; Sánchez-Velasco, L.; Enríquez-Paredes, L. A New Algorithm to Estimate Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient from Secchi Disk Depth. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8, 558. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8080558

AMA Style

Castillo-Ramírez A, Santamaría-del-Ángel E, González-Silvera A, Frouin R, Sebastiá-Frasquet M-T, Tan J, Lopez-Calderon J, Sánchez-Velasco L, Enríquez-Paredes L. A New Algorithm to Estimate Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient from Secchi Disk Depth. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 2020; 8(8):558. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8080558

Chicago/Turabian Style

Castillo-Ramírez, Alejandra, Eduardo Santamaría-del-Ángel, Adriana González-Silvera, Robert Frouin, María-Teresa Sebastiá-Frasquet, Jing Tan, Jorge Lopez-Calderon, Laura Sánchez-Velasco, and Luis Enríquez-Paredes. 2020. "A New Algorithm to Estimate Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient from Secchi Disk Depth" Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 8, no. 8: 558. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8080558

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