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Article

A Preliminary Study on an Alternative Ship Propulsion System Fueled by Ammonia: Environmental and Economic Assessments

by 1,2,*, 1, 2,* and 1,*
1
Future Technology Research Team, Korean Register (KR), Busan 46762, Korea
2
Department of Electrical Engineering, Pusan National University (PNU), Busan 46241, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(3), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8030183
Received: 4 February 2020 / Revised: 19 February 2020 / Accepted: 3 March 2020 / Published: 7 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Shipping)
The shipping industry is becoming increasingly aware of its environmental responsibilities in the long-term. In 2018, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) pledged to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by at least 50% by the year 2050 as compared with a baseline value from 2008. Ammonia has been regarded as one of the potential carbon-free fuels for ships based on these environmental issues. In this paper, we propose four propulsion systems for a 2500 Twenty-foot Equivalent Unit (TEU) container feeder ship. All of the proposed systems are fueled by ammonia; however, different power systems are used: main engine, generators, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Further, these systems are compared to the conventional main engine propulsion system that is fueled by heavy fuel oil, with a focus on the economic and environmental perspectives. By comparing the conventional and proposed systems, it is shown that ammonia can be a carbon-free fuel for ships. Moreover, among the proposed systems, the SOFC power system is the most eco-friendly alternative (up to 92.1%), even though it requires a high lifecycle cost than the others. Although this study has some limitations and assumptions, the results indicate a meaningful approach toward solving GHG problems in the maritime industry. View Full-Text
Keywords: ammonia; hydrogen; fuel cell; electric propulsion system; greenhouse gas (GHG); zero-emission ship ammonia; hydrogen; fuel cell; electric propulsion system; greenhouse gas (GHG); zero-emission ship
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, K.; Roh, G.; Kim, W.; Chun, K. A Preliminary Study on an Alternative Ship Propulsion System Fueled by Ammonia: Environmental and Economic Assessments. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8, 183. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8030183

AMA Style

Kim K, Roh G, Kim W, Chun K. A Preliminary Study on an Alternative Ship Propulsion System Fueled by Ammonia: Environmental and Economic Assessments. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 2020; 8(3):183. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8030183

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kim, Kyunghwa, Gilltae Roh, Wook Kim, and Kangwoo Chun. 2020. "A Preliminary Study on an Alternative Ship Propulsion System Fueled by Ammonia: Environmental and Economic Assessments" Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 8, no. 3: 183. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8030183

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