# Ship-Collision Avoidance Decision-Making Learning of Unmanned Surface Vehicles with Automatic Identification System Data Based on Encoder—Decoder Automatic-Response Neural Networks

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### 2.1. Trajectory Data Identification of Ship Encounters

_{xO}and V

_{yO}are the components of the own ship’s speed vector on the x- and y-axes, respectively, V

_{xT}and V

_{yT}are the components of the target ship’s speed vector on the x- and y-axes, respectively, V

_{R}is the relative speed, φ

_{R}is the relative course, and α is the angle compensation coefficient.

#### 2.2. Key Feature-Point Extraction from the Ship-Encounter Trajectories

#### 2.3. Decoder–Encoder Automatic-Response Neural Networks

#### 2.3.1. Sequence-to-Sequence (Seq2Seq) Model

_{t}of the last hidden layer can also be used as the semantic vector C, and E

_{1}, …, E

_{t}denote the input data of the target ship trajectory.

_{2}, …, Y

_{t−1}is the own ship response sequence for the target ship and the fixed semantic vector C will be used to predict the next output word Y

_{t}.

#### 2.3.2. Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory Recurrent Neural Networks (Bi-LSTM RNN) Structure

## 3. Results

## 4. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 3.**Collision avoidance steering diagram based on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREGS).

Encounter Pattern | Distance (n mile) | Time to the Closest Point of Approach (TCPA) (s) | Distance to the Closest Point of Approach (DCPA) (n mile) | Encounter Situation | Difference of Heading ΔC (°) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

A1-A1 | Dis < 6 | TCPA > 0 | DCPA < 1 | Head On | 174 < ΔC < 186 |

A2-A1 | Dis < 6 | TCPA > 0 | DCPA < 1 | Head On | 174 < ΔC < 186 |

A2-A2 | Dis < 6 | TCPA > 0 | DCPA < 1 | Head On | 174 < ΔC < 186 |

B1-D | Dis < 6 | TCPA > 0 | DCPA < 2 | Crossing | |

B1-A | Dis < 6 | TCPA > 0 | DCPA < 2 | Crossing | |

B2-D | Dis < 6 | TCPA > 0 | DCPA < 2 | Crossing | |

B2-A | Dis < 6 | TCPA > 0 | DCPA < 2 | Crossing | |

C1-A | Dis < 4 | TCPA > 0 | DCPA < 3 | Overtaking | S1 < S2cos(ΔC) |

C1-B1 | Dis < 4 | TCPA > 0 | DCPA < 3 | Overtaking | S1 < S2cos(ΔC) |

C1-D2 | Dis < 4 | TCPA > 0 | DCPA < 3 | Overtaking | S1 < S2cos(ΔC) |

C2-A | Dis < 4 | TCPA > 0 | DCPA < 3 | Overtaking | S1 < S2cos(ΔC) |

C2-B1 | Dis < 4 | TCPA > 0 | DCPA < 3 | Overtaking | S1 < S2cos(ΔC) |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Gao, M.; Shi, G.-Y. Ship-Collision Avoidance Decision-Making Learning of Unmanned Surface Vehicles with Automatic Identification System Data Based on Encoder—Decoder Automatic-Response Neural Networks. *J. Mar. Sci. Eng.* **2020**, *8*, 754.
https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8100754

**AMA Style**

Gao M, Shi G-Y. Ship-Collision Avoidance Decision-Making Learning of Unmanned Surface Vehicles with Automatic Identification System Data Based on Encoder—Decoder Automatic-Response Neural Networks. *Journal of Marine Science and Engineering*. 2020; 8(10):754.
https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8100754

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Gao, Miao, and Guo-You Shi. 2020. "Ship-Collision Avoidance Decision-Making Learning of Unmanned Surface Vehicles with Automatic Identification System Data Based on Encoder—Decoder Automatic-Response Neural Networks" *Journal of Marine Science and Engineering* 8, no. 10: 754.
https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8100754