Next Article in Journal
The Flow Noise Calculation for an Axisymmetric Body in a Complex Underwater Environment
Next Article in Special Issue
Validation of Tidal Stream Turbine Wake Predictions and Analysis of Wake Recovery Mechanism
Previous Article in Journal
Hydro-Acoustic and Hydrodynamic Optimization of a Marine Propeller Using Genetic Algorithm, Boundary Element Method, and FW-H Equations
Previous Article in Special Issue
Wave Energy in Tropical Regions: Deployment Challenges, Environmental and Social Perspectives
Open AccessFeature PaperReview

Life Cycle Assessment of Ocean Energy Technologies: A Systematic Review

1
Engineering Institute, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Universidad 3000, Mexico City C.P. 04510, Mexico
2
Industrial Design Department, Universidad de Monterrey, San Pedro Garza García, Nuevo León C.P. 66238, Mexico
3
CIRAIG, Polytechnique Montréal, Mathematical and Industrial Engineering Department, succ. Centre-Ville, Montreal, QC H3C 3A7 C.P. 6079, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(9), 322; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7090322
Received: 28 August 2019 / Revised: 10 September 2019 / Accepted: 11 September 2019 / Published: 17 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Development of Marine Energy Extraction)
The increase of greenhouse gases (GHG) generated by the burning of fossil fuels has been recognized as one of the main causes of climate change (CC). Different countries of the world have developed new policies on national energy security directed to the use of renewable energies mainly, ocean energy being one of them. The implementation of ocean energy is increasing worldwide. However, the use of these technologies is not exempt from the generation of potential environmental impacts throughout their life cycle. In this context, life cycle assessment (LCA) is a holistic approach used to evaluate the environmental impacts of a product or system throughout its entire life cycle. LCA studies need to be conducted to foster the development of ocean energy technologies (OET) in sustainable management. In this paper, a systematic review was conducted and 18 LCA studies of OET were analyzed. Most of the LCA studies are focused on wave and tidal energy. CC is the most relevant impact category evaluated, which is generated mostly by raw material extraction, manufacturing stage and shipping operations. Finally, the critical stages of the systems evaluated were identified, together with, the opportunity areas to promote an environmental management for ocean energy developers. View Full-Text
Keywords: environmental impacts; life cycle assessment; ocean energy; renewable energy; LCA of ocean energy; review of ocean energy; environmental impacts of ocean energy environmental impacts; life cycle assessment; ocean energy; renewable energy; LCA of ocean energy; review of ocean energy; environmental impacts of ocean energy
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Paredes, M.G.; Padilla-Rivera, A.; Güereca, L.P. Life Cycle Assessment of Ocean Energy Technologies: A Systematic Review. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7, 322.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop