The contribution of high-frequency wind to the Peruvian upwelling system during 2014–2016 was studied using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), forced by four different temporal resolution (six-hourly, daily, weekly, and monthly) wind forcing. A major effect of the high-frequency wind is its warming of the water at all depths along the Peruvian coast. The mechanism for the temperature changes induced by high-frequency wind forcing was analyzed through heat budget analysis, which indicated a three-layer structure. Vertical advection plays a leading role in the warming of the mixed layer (0–25 m), and enhanced vertical mixing balances the warming effect. Analysis suggests that around the depths of 25–60 m, vertical mixing warms the water by bringing heat from the surface to deeper depths. In waters deeper than 60 m, the effect of vertical mixing is negligible. The differences among the oceanic responses in the sensitivity experiments suggest that wind forcing containing variabilities at higher than synoptic frequencies must be included in the atmospheric forcing in order to properly simulate the Peru upwelling system.
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