Next Article in Journal
Automated Image Analysis of Offshore Infrastructure Marine Biofouling
Next Article in Special Issue
Quantifying Economic Value of Coastal Ecosystem Services: A Review
Previous Article in Journal
Effects of Salinity on Bubble Cloud Characteristics
Article Menu
Issue 1 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6(1), 3;

Two Centuries of Climate Change and Climate Variability, East Coast Australia

Griffith Centre for Coastal Management, Griffith University, Gold Coast 4222, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 December 2017 / Accepted: 19 December 2017 / Published: 3 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change, Coasts and Coastal Risk)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2379 KB, uploaded 3 January 2018]   |  


On the east Australian coast, climate change is expressed as a slowly rising sea level. Analysis of records, dating back over two centuries, also shows oscillating multidecadal ‘storm’ and ‘drought’ dominated climate periods that are distinct from long-term climate change. Climate variability, as expressed by these distinct multidecadal periods, is generally associated with phases of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation Index (IPO). Two centuries of climate and coastline response are examined for the central east coast of Australia, between Fraser Island and Coffs Harbour. The long record has been compiled by analysing a wide range of indicators and observations, including: historical accounts, storm records, sea level trends, assessment of storm erosion faces, and coastal movement in relation to fixed monuments, surveys, and maps. Periods of suppressed sea level, beach accretion, and drought were found to be associated with strongly positive IPO. Periods of higher sea level, increased storminess, and beach erosion were associated with strongly negative IPO. Understanding the behaviour of climate variability over different timescales has the potential to improve the understanding of, and responses to, climate change. This will be important in the sustainable management of geomorphic and ecological systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: IPO; climate change; climate variability; sea level rise; coastal erosion; Australia IPO; climate change; climate variability; sea level rise; coastal erosion; Australia

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Helman, P.; Tomlinson, R. Two Centuries of Climate Change and Climate Variability, East Coast Australia. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2018, 6, 3.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. EISSN 2077-1312 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top