Next Article in Journal
BiodiverSO: A Case Study of Integrated Project to Preserve the Biodiversity of Vegetable Crops in Puglia (Southern Italy)
Next Article in Special Issue
“Naturalness” and Its Relation to Animal Welfare from an Ethological Perspective
Previous Article in Journal
Changes in the Concentration of Leaf Nitrogen over the Season Affect the Diagnosis of Deficiency or Sufficiency in Strawberries in the Subtropics
Open AccessDiscussion

Why Pain Is Still a Welfare Issue for Farm Animals, and How Facial Expression Could Be the Answer

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Chester, Parkgate Rd, Chester CH1 4BJ, UK
Agriculture 2018, 8(8), 127;
Received: 12 July 2018 / Revised: 28 July 2018 / Accepted: 8 August 2018 / Published: 11 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ethology and Animal Welfare)
Pain is a sensory and emotional experience that significantly affects animal welfare and has negative impacts on the economics of farming. Pain is often associated with common production diseases such as lameness and mastitis, as well as introduced to the animal through routine husbandry practices such as castration and tail docking. Farm animals are prey species which tend not to overtly express pain or weakness, making recognizing and evaluating pain incredibly difficult. Current methods of pain assessment do not provide information on what the animal is experiencing at that moment in time, only that its experience is having a long term negative impact on its behavior and biological functioning. Measures that provide reliable information about the animals’ affective state in that moment are urgently required; facial expression as a pain assessment tool has this ability. Automation of the detection and analysis of facial expression is currently in development, providing further incentive to use these methods in animal welfare assessment. View Full-Text
Keywords: pain; production animals; facial expression; welfare pain; production animals; facial expression; welfare
MDPI and ACS Style

McLennan, K.M. Why Pain Is Still a Welfare Issue for Farm Animals, and How Facial Expression Could Be the Answer. Agriculture 2018, 8, 127.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop