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Off-Farm Employment and Economic Crisis: Evidence from Cyprus

Energy, Environment and Water Research Center, The Cyprus Institute, 20 Konstantinou Kavafi Street, 2121 Nicosia, Cyprus
Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, Agricultural University of Athens, 75 Iera Odos, 11855 Athens, Greece
Department of Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture, Rural Development and Environment, Louki Akrita, 1412 Nicosia, Cyprus
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agriculture 2018, 8(3), 41;
Received: 24 January 2018 / Revised: 6 March 2018 / Accepted: 12 March 2018 / Published: 15 March 2018
PDF [897 KB, uploaded 15 March 2018]


Off-farm employment is an important strategy for complementing farm household income and maintaining rural livelihoods. A multilevel logistic regression model was applied to investigate the effect of farm-level and regional-level factors on off-farm employment in Cyprus during the recent economic crisis period. The performance of nonfarm sectors positively affects off-farm employment; a one-percent increase in the share of the secondary and tertiary sector employment increases the likelihood of off-farm work by 9.5 times. The importance of location was also identified. Farm households located in rural areas are 70% less likely to engage in off-farm work than households located in urban areas. The positive effect of educational attainment and the negative effect of farm training confirmed the importance of human capital characteristics on off-farm labour participation. Farm structural factors are also significant determinants of off-farm employment. A one-hectare increase in the farm size decreases the odds of off-farm labour participation by 50%. Operators of crop farming holdings are 4.2 times more likely to work off the farm than operators of livestock and mixed-farming holdings. The results reveal the importance of adopting a multilevel and integrated approach for the analysis of off-farm employment. View Full-Text
Keywords: off-farm employment; economic crisis; multilevel modelling; logistic regression model; contextual effects; education; farm size; farm type; Cyprus off-farm employment; economic crisis; multilevel modelling; logistic regression model; contextual effects; education; farm size; farm type; Cyprus

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Giannakis, E.; Efstratoglou, S.; Antoniades, A. Off-Farm Employment and Economic Crisis: Evidence from Cyprus. Agriculture 2018, 8, 41.

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