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Open AccessArticle

Delineation of Agricultural Drainage Pipe Patterns Using Ground Penetrating Radar Integrated with a Real-Time Kinematic Global Navigation Satellite System

1
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Res. Serv., Soil Drainage Res. Unit, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
2
C.J. International Center for Water Resources Management, Central State University, Wilberforce, OH 45384, USA
3
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Res. Serv., Beltsville Agric. Res. Cntr., Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
4
Veselka Farms, Pataskala, OH 43062, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agriculture 2018, 8(11), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture8110167
Received: 18 September 2018 / Revised: 18 October 2018 / Accepted: 19 October 2018 / Published: 24 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors Application in Agriculture)
Better methods are needed for mapping agricultural drainage pipe systems. Prior research on small test plots indicates that ground penetrating radar (GPR) is oftentimes capable of detecting buried drainage pipes; however, the feasibility of employing this geophysical technique in larger field areas has not been adequately evaluated. Ground penetrating radar integrated with a Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) may be an effective and efficient means of mapping drain lines within agricultural fields. Therefore, GPR-RTK/GNSS was tested in three agricultural settings; with Site 1 and Site 2 located in Beltsville, MD, USA and Site 3 near Columbus, OH, USA. Soils at the three sites ranged from silty clay loam to loamy sand. A GPR unit with 250 MHz antennas was used to detect drainage pipes, and at Sites 1 and 2, a physical GNSS base station was utilized, while a virtual base station was employed at Site 3. The GPR-RTK/GNSS configurations used in this study delineated a complex rectangular drainage pipe system at Site 1, with one set of drainage pipes oriented southwest-northeast and a second oriented southeast-northwest. At Site 2, a herringbone drain line pattern was outlined, and at Site 3, random drain lines were found. When integrated with RTK/GNSS, spiral or serpentine GPR transects (or spiral/serpentine segments of a GPR transects) were utilized to provide insight on drain line directional trends. Consequently, given suitable field conditions, GPR integrated with RTK/GNSS can be a valuable tool for farmers and drainage contractors needing to map subsurface drainage systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: Drainage Pipe Mapping; Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR); Real-Time Kinematic Global Navigation Satellite System (RTK/GNSS) Drainage Pipe Mapping; Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR); Real-Time Kinematic Global Navigation Satellite System (RTK/GNSS)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Allred, B.; Wishart, D.; Martinez, L.; Schomberg, H.; Mirsky, S.; Meyers, G.; Elliott, J.; Charyton, C. Delineation of Agricultural Drainage Pipe Patterns Using Ground Penetrating Radar Integrated with a Real-Time Kinematic Global Navigation Satellite System. Agriculture 2018, 8, 167.

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