Next Article in Journal
The Shortwave Infrared Bands’ Response to Stomatal Conductance in “Conference” Pear Trees (Pyrus communis L.)
Next Article in Special Issue
Effects of Biochar Blends on Microbial Community Composition in Two Coastal Plain Soils
Previous Article in Journal
Signal Grass (Brachiaria decumbens) Toxicity in Grazing Ruminants
Previous Article in Special Issue
Efficacy of Chicken Litter and Wood Biochars and Their Activated Counterparts in Heavy Metal Clean up from Wastewater

Removing Gaseous NH3 Using Biochar as an Adsorbent

USDA-ARS Coastal Plains Soil, Water and Plant Research Center, Florence, SC 29501, USA
USDA-ARS Southern Regional Research Center, New Orleans, LA 70124, USA
Department of Natural Resources, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, NC 27411, USA
USDA-ARS National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, Peoria, IL 61604, USA
Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Les Copeland
Agriculture 2015, 5(4), 991-1002;
Received: 30 June 2015 / Revised: 21 September 2015 / Accepted: 25 September 2015 / Published: 30 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Biochar on Soil Fertility and Crop Production)
Ammonia is a major fugitive gas emitted from livestock operations and fertilization production. This study tested the potential of various biochars in removing gaseous ammonia via adsorption processes. Gaseous ammonia adsorption capacities of various biochars made from wood shaving and chicken litter with different thermal conditions and activation techniques were determined using laboratory adsorption column tests. Ammonia adsorption capacities of non-activated biochars ranged from 0.15 to 5.09 mg·N/g, which were comparable to that of other commercial activated carbon and natural zeolite. There were no significant differences in ammonia adsorption capacities of steam activated and non-activated biochars even if the surface areas of the steam activated biochars were about two orders of magnitude greater than that of non-activated biochars. In contrast, phosphoric acid activation greatly increased the biochar ammonia adsorption capacity. This suggests that the surface area of biochar did not readily control gaseous NH3 adsorption. Ammonia adsorption capacities were more or less linearly increased with acidic oxygen surface groups of non-activated and steam-activated biochars. Phosphoric acid bound to the acid activated biochars is suspected to contribute to the exceptionally high ammonia adsorption capacity. The sorption capacities of virgin and water-washed biochar samples were not different, suggesting the potential to regenerate spent biochar simply with water instead of energy- and capital-intensive steam. The results of this study suggest that non-activated biochars can successfully replace commercial activated carbon in removing gaseous ammonia and the removal efficiency will greatly increase if the biochars are activated with phosphoric acid. View Full-Text
Keywords: gaseous ammonia; biochar; adsorption; activation; regeneration gaseous ammonia; biochar; adsorption; activation; regeneration
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Ro, K.S.; Lima, I.M.; Reddy, G.B.; Jackson, M.A.; Gao, B. Removing Gaseous NH3 Using Biochar as an Adsorbent. Agriculture 2015, 5, 991-1002.

AMA Style

Ro KS, Lima IM, Reddy GB, Jackson MA, Gao B. Removing Gaseous NH3 Using Biochar as an Adsorbent. Agriculture. 2015; 5(4):991-1002.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ro, Kyoung S., Isabel M. Lima, Guidqopuram B. Reddy, Michael A. Jackson, and Bin Gao. 2015. "Removing Gaseous NH3 Using Biochar as an Adsorbent" Agriculture 5, no. 4: 991-1002.

Find Other Styles

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Back to TopTop