Next Article in Journal
Stability Analysis of a Sprayer UAV with a Liquid Tank with Different Outer Shapes and Inner Structures
Next Article in Special Issue
Complementary Strategies for Biological Control of Aphids and Related Virus Transmission in Sugar Beet to Replace Neonicotinoids
Previous Article in Journal
The Role of Internet Development in China’s Grain Production: Specific Path and Dialectical Perspective
Previous Article in Special Issue
Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Bt Resistant and Susceptible Strains in Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)
Order Article Reprints
Font Type:
Arial Georgia Verdana
Font Size:
Aa Aa Aa
Line Spacing:
Column Width:

Methyl Benzoate as a Promising, Environmentally Safe Insecticide: Current Status and Future Perspectives

Division of Applied Biosciences, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea
School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, The University of Queensland, Gatton, QLD 4343, Australia
Research Institute for Dok-do and Ulleung-do Island, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea
Sustainable Agriculture Research Center, Kyungpook National University, Gunwi 39061, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agriculture 2022, 12(3), 378;
Received: 26 January 2022 / Revised: 28 February 2022 / Accepted: 5 March 2022 / Published: 8 March 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Pest Management in Agriculture)


The widespread use of synthetic chemical pesticides beginning in the late 1930s has contributed to the development of insecticide resistance of many important species of pest insects and plants. Recent trends in pesticide development have emphasized the use of more environmentally benign control methods that take into consideration environmental, food safety, and human health. Biopesticides (e.g., naturally occurring pesticidal compounds) are alternative pest management tools that normally have no negative impact on human health or the environment. Here we review methyl benzoate, a relatively new botanical insecticide that occurs naturally as a metabolite in plants, and whose odor is an attractant to some insects. Since 2016, many studies have shown that methyl benzoate is an effective pesticide against a range of different agricultural, stored product, and urban insect pests. Methyl benzoate has several important modes of action, including as a contact toxicant, a fumigant, an ovicidal toxin, an oviposition deterrent, a repellent, and an attractant. In this review, we summarize various modes of action of methyl benzoate and its toxicity or control potential against various kinds of arthropods, including agricultural pests and their natural enemies, and pollinators. We conclude that methyl benzoate is a very promising candidate for use in integrated pest management under either greenhouse or field conditions.

Graphical Abstract

1. Introduction

The primary challenge for human societies has always been sufficient food. However, pests, diseases, and weeds have destroyed a considerable portion of the global annual crop production [1]. It has been a long time now that synthetic chemical pesticides have played an important role in controlling insect pests in crops [2,3]. Nevertheless, widespread use of these pesticides can lead to pesticide resistance, environmental degradation, contamination of underground water and soil, harming ecosystems and nontarget species, including humans [4,5,6,7,8]. Therefore, curbing synthetic pesticide use is an urgent matter [9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16].
Some botanical pesticides (BPs) are biorational pesticides as they are less harmful to human health and the environment than synthetic pesticides [17,18,19,20,21]. BPs are derived from plant species in various families. They are obtained either as plant extracts or as essential oils (EOs) [3,22]. Presently, at least four kinds of BPs are widely used for insect control: pyrethrum, rotenone, neem, and EOs. These widely used BPs are also utilized along with three others that are more limited in use. They include ryania, nicotine, and sabadilla [23,24,25]. Aromatic plants generate EOs as secondary metabolites, which are the most common forms of BPs. Thus, they are composed of complex mixtures of chemical constituents and components with various functional groups (e.g., monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, phenylpropanoids) [10,19,26]. Different EOs have proven beneficial for pest control, and several studies have been undertaken [3,18,27,28]. The major constituents of EOs often display biological activity, such as insecticidal or ovicidal effects on insects.
Additionally, they demonstrate antibacterial effects against microbes [29,30,31,32]. Generally, EOs are less harmful to nontarget species than most conventional synthetic pesticides. Therefore, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the USA accepted them as safe for human consumption [33,34,35].
Some commercially available products derived from EOs or their constituents (e.g., oil products of neem, garlic, thyme, limonene, linalool, carvacrol, nicotine, and rotenone) are used in agriculture and urban pest management. Nonetheless, these products command only 1% of the global pesticide market [10,24,36]. Therefore, a significant opportunity exists in pest management to develop BPs as environmentally friendly tools.
EOs are volatile aromatic liquids extracted from different plant materials, such as flowers, leaves, and fruits [37,38]. Hardy and Michael [39] were among the earliest scientists to identify volatile compounds in feijoa (Feijoa sellowiana Berg [Myrtales: Myrtaceae]). They discovered that methyl benzoate (MBe) was the dominant active component of the aroma, accounting for more than 90% of the EO in feijoa. Moreover, MBe has been found in the EOs of many other plants, including jonquil (Narcissus jonquilla L.), tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.), ylang-ylang (Cananga odorata Lam.), ginger lily (Hedychium coronarium Koenig), jasmine (Jasminum grandiflorum L.), Bakul (Mimusops elengi L.), champaca (Michelia champaca L.), and pomelo (Citrus grandis L.) [40,41,42,43]. Therefore, MBe occurs widely in nature [44]. Recently, studies have identified the volatile component of MBe from fermented apple juice [13,14,45]. Furthermore, MBe derived from fermented apple juice has significant pesticidal activity against several insect pests, including spotted wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii Matsumura [Diptera: Drosophilidae]), marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys Stål [Hemiptera: Pentatomidae]), tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta L. [Lepidoptera: Sphingidae]), diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L. [Lepidoptera: Plutellidae]), and gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L. [Lepidoptera: Erebidae]) [13,14]. Generally, previous studies have demonstrated that MBe is a compelling biorational pesticide against some invasive species, especially H. halys and D. suzukii. MBe also appears to have low toxicity to nontarget organisms [46,47,48]. This review examined the characteristics, applications, and toxicity of MBe, stressing its significance in agriculture for insect pest control. We addressed various routes of exposure to MBe, considering its effects on nontarget arthropods and plants, and discussed the sublethal impacts of MBe and its mammalian toxicity. Our objective was to evaluate recent studies on the use of MBe as a potential biorational pesticide.

2. Natural Function and Sources of Methyl Benzoate

MBe (C8H8O2; molecular weight 136.15 gm/mol) is a volatile ester that occurs naturally as a metabolite in plants [44]. Various plants release MBe as a pleasant odor in nature [49], including flowers [50,51,52] and fruits [53,54,55,56,57]. Lepidopteran insects can be attracted to the floral scent of MBe, e.g., some hawk moths [58,59]. In addition, MBe is emitted from rice plants damaged by the larvae of the fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) [60]. FAW-induced volatiles, including MBe, are highly attractive to females of the FAW parasitoid, Cotesia marginiventris (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) [60]. Silva et al. [61] reported that MBe occurs at significantly higher levels in the emissions of plants infested with the tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). MBe is particularly abundant in the aromas emitted from petunias (Petunia spp.) and snapdragons (Antirrhinum majus L.), functioning as a long-range attractant to lure bees such as the orchid bee, Euglossa cybelia (M.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae), for pollination [44,62,63,64,65,66]. In addition, MBe is a semiochemical that affects both intraspecific and interspecific interactions in a number of insect species [67].
MBe is recognized for its sweet, balsamic, and spicy floral odor. It is used as a fragrance ingredient and preservative in various personal care products, such as shampoos, shower products, face/neck products, liquid soaps, mouthwash, perfumes, hair colorants, and cosmetics [68,69]. MBe has low-to-moderate human toxicity by ingestion and inhalation. Hence, it is approved by the US FDA (21 CFR 172.515; FDA 2015) and the European Union (EU Regulation 1334/2008 & 178/2002; EU 2015) for use as a food-grade flavor ingredient. George [70] reported that MBe is used as a flavor ingredient in some chewing gums in concentrations of up to 45.63 mg/kg. Additionally, MBe biodegrades slowly in the atmosphere [71].

3. Extraction, Biosynthesis Pathway, and Chemical Properties of Methyl Benzoate

Extraction of essential oil from the peel of the aromatic fruit feijoa was done according to a procedure published by Peng et al. [37]. Extraction was optimized using steam distillation and hydro-distillation. Volatile and active aroma compounds, such as MBe, were characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry. In a procedure published by Feng et al. [45], the collection of MBe from fermented apple juice was explained.
MBe is a common component of floral scents, identified in more than 80 different plant species [58]. Nevertheless, the pathway for its biosynthesis is vastly unknown in most species, especially in monocots [72]. MBe is formed through methylation of benzoic acid, the biosynthesis of which is derived from the aromatic amino acid L-phenylalanine, an end product of the shikimate pathway [73]. In plants, benzoic acid biosynthesis occurs through multiple routes that arise from the phenylpropanoid pathway. It starts with the deamination of l-phenylalanine to trans-cinnamic acid by phenylalanine ammonia-lyase [73]. The peroxisomal β-oxidation pathway plays a vital role in the catabolism of fatty acids in animals, fungi, and plants [74]. In plants, β-oxidative pathways are involved in the biosynthesis of numerous primary metabolites, including benzoic acid [75]. The flowers of Petunia hybrida cv (Mitchell) emit high levels of benzenoid volatiles [76,77]. Recently, the core β-oxidative pathway of benzoic acid in this species was fully explained [75,78]. First, the committed step in this pathway is converting trans-cinnamic acid to its CoA thioester, cinnamoyl-CoA, catalyzed in petunias by a peroxisomal cinnamate-CoA ligase [79]. MBe is formed via a methylation reaction with benzoic acid as a substrate, catalyzed by S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent benzoic acid methyltransferase [51] (Figure 1).
MBe is a colorless liquid with intense floral and cherry aromas. It is soluble in methanol and ethyl ether but insoluble in water [80].

4. Insecticidal Effects of Methyl Benzoate

The toxicity of MBe can be classified by the various ways that it may affect target and nontarget organisms. For example, MBe can act via contact toxicity, fumigant activity, attraction or repellent action, oviposition deterrence, or insect growth regulator effects.

4.1. Contact Toxicants

Contact toxicants act externally to (1) dry the insect body; (2) create a gas-tight film that blocks regular gas exchange; or (3) penetrate the skin and affect the nervous system, etc., including through ovicidal activity (that is, killing the eggs by disrupting embryonic development and preventing hatching). When used on different arthropod pests, including sap-sucking hemipterans and phytophagous mites, MBe demonstrates potent contact toxicity [13,14,48,81,82]. The contact toxicity of MBe has been assessed using different methods [13,14,48,81,82,83]. However, the direct topical application of the product to the body surface of insects with a hand-held sprayer or syringe has been the most commonly used method.
The contact toxicity of MBe has been tested against the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), a primary pest of many agricultural and horticultural crops worldwide [84,85]. Mostafiz et al. [81] reported that the direct spray application of 1% MBe to adults of B. tabaci caused 100% mortality 24 h post-treatment (Figure 2).
The eggs and nymphs of B. tabaci are found on the underside of crop leaves. Application of 1% or 2% MBe via the leaf-dipping method, which ensures good coverage of the underside, caused a 75.6% and 94.2% reduction in egg hatch rate, respectively [81]. Similarly, adult eclosion following leaf-dipping with 1% MBe was reduced by 93.2% [81]. The lethal median concentration (LC50) values for MBe solutions on eggs, fourth-instar nymphs, and adults of B. tabaci were 0.3, 0.2, and 0.2% (v/v), respectively (Table 1).
The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii (Glover) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a polyphagous pest associated with more than 700 host plants worldwide [89,90]. Using a leaf-dipping assay, Mostafiz et al. [48] reported 100% mortality of third-instar nymphs and adults of A. gossypii 24 h after applying 1% MBe solution (Figure 2). The LC50 values for MBe solutions on nymphs and adults were 0.18% and 0.32% (v/v), respectively (Table 1). Moreover, MBe showed acaricidal activity against the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae) [82], which is one of the most destructive pests of ornamental and horticultural plants [91,92]. Egg hatch of this mite was reduced by 76.9% and 92.5%, respectively, in leaf-dipping assays with 0.5% and 1% MBe [82]. However, 24 h after exposure to 0.5 and 1% MBe, the mortality of T. urticae adults was 55.3% and 81.3%, respectively. The LC50 values for MBe solutions on eggs and adults were 0.27% and 0.38% (v/v), respectively (Table 1).
Additionally, MBe induces acute toxicity in other pests, including the invasive fruit fly D. suzukii, the stink bug H. halys, and the lepidopterans P. xylostella, M. sexta, and L. dispar [13,14]. For example, 100% mortality of D. suzukii immature stages (Figure 2) was caused by the direct application of 1% MBe to pre-infested blueberries, with no larvae and pupae developing or adult flies emerging after 10 d of incubation at room temperature [14]. Compared with other EOs (α-terpinene, γ-terpinene, terpineol, cineole, and α-pinene), MBe is the most toxic metabolite for D. suzukii [14]. Furthermore, when used on H. halys nymphs, MBe has shown contact toxicity [14]. For the five nymphal instars tested, the LC50 values of MBe ranged from 1.01 to 2.39 μL/vial (Table 1). In laboratory bioassays (LC50 values ranged from 0.26 to 2.70, µL/vial), the toxicity of MBe against nymphs of H. halys is comparable to that of two commercial pesticides (acetamiprid and pyriproxyfen) [14].
Feng and Zhang [14] assessed the ovicidal toxicity of MBe in a direct spray bioassay by measuring the hatch rate of eggs of H. halys, M. sexta, and P. xylostella. MBe exhibited ovicidal effects, with LC50 values of 0.020, 0.015, and 0.001 mg/cm2, respectively, for the three species listed (Table 1). The ovicidal action of MBe was greater than that of a mixture of bifenthrin and ζ-cypermethrin. Reportedly, it was also greater than that of an EO product containing 2-phenethyl propionate and oils of clover, rosemary, and thyme [14]. Feng et al. [13] reported that MBe showed high larvicidal activity against L. dispar (LC50 = 0.114 mg/cm2) (Table 1), which was 1.94 times more toxic than acetamiprid (LC50 = 0.221 mg/cm2).
The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Buren) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), native to South America but invasive in North America and Asia, is considered one of the world’s worst invasive species [93,94]. Recently, Chen et al. [86] demonstrated that contact toxicity to workers of S. invicta is due to topical application of MBe, with the highest mortality at a dose of 93.65 µg per ant. Moreover, MBe has demonstrated contact toxicity against the azuki bean weevil, Callosobruchus chinensis (L.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) [83]. Furthermore, Park et al. [83] reported that the topical application of MBe at a dose of 44.81 μg/beetle produced the highest mortality 24 h after treatment (Table 1).
Recently, Larson et al. [87] reported that MBe displays contact toxicity against adults of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). The results showed that the LD50 value for MBe was 45.6 μg per adult female (Table 1). Mostafiz et al. [88] found that MBe exhibits larvicidal activity against Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Culex pipiens (L.) MBe was three times more harmful to Ae. albopictus than Cx. pipiens based on the findings (Table 1).

4.2. Fumigant Toxicity

More than 100 species of insects cause significant economic losses to stored products [95,96]. Furthermore, fumigants are commonly used against these challenging pests. Fumigants enter the body as gases via the trachea and may influence the activities of different enzymes in the nervous system, muscular system, fat bodies, or other tissues. Thus, fumigant toxicity is often assessed using impregnated paper, allowing the product’s release into the air of a closed experimental chamber [97,98]. The experimental setup uses a sieve or mesh to prevent insects from coming into physical contact with the impregnated paper.
MBe has been shown to possess fumigant activity against various stored product pests [83,86,99,100,101,102]. According to Park et al. [83], MBe exhibited the highest fumigation toxicity against adult weevils of C. chinensis at 11.76 mg/L of air. The LC50 value was estimated to be 5.36 mg/L (Table 2).
In treating fire ant mounds, fumigants have been used [103]. Recently, MBe displayed strong fumigation toxicity against workers of the invasive species S. invicta [86]. The highest percent mortality of ant workers 24 h after being fumigated with MBe occurred at a dosage of 1.43 µg/mL, with an LC50 value of 0.77 µg/mL (Table 2). Morrison et al. [99] studied MBe as a possible environmentally friendly fumigant for the control of stored product beetles, including Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and Trogoderma variabile (Ballion) (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). Using 1080 mg/L of MBe, R. dominica was the most susceptible, followed closely by T. castaneum, whereas S. zeamais and T. variabile were much less susceptible to MBe [99].
The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius (L.) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), whose incidence is on the rise worldwide, is a human health pest [104,105]. Larson et al. [100] reported that MBe caused 97% mortality of adult bed bugs 24 h after fumigation with 7.14 mg/L of MBe in Erlenmeyer flasks (volume ca. 280 mL).
MBe has been examined as a potential fumigant for controlling pests on apples at different temperatures and evaluated treatment effects on postharvest quality [101]. The pest species included western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae); lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Hemiptera: Aphididae); rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae); and bulb mites, Rhizoglyphus spp. (Sarcoptiformes: Acaridae). F. occidentalis and N. ribisnigri were completely controlled in 8, 16, and 24 h at 25 °C, 13 °C, and 2 °C, respectively. For S. oryzae, complete control was achieved in 16 and 72 h with and without rice, respectively, at 25 °C. Furthermore, complete control of Rhizoglyphus spp. on peanuts was achieved in 64 h at 25 °C. Additionally, MBe fumigation for 24 h at 25 °C led to the full control of F. occidentalis. In addition, there was no negative impact on the visual quality of three varieties of apples four weeks after fumigation [101].
Most recently, Mostafiz et al. [102] reported that for controlling the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), MBe is superior to other botanical fumigants. Within 4 h of exposure using 1 µL/L air, MBe demonstrated high fumigant activity against adults of P. interpunctella. The LC50 of MBe was 0.1 µL/L air (Table 2).

4.3. Repellents, Oviposition Deterrents, Attractants, and Developmental Disruptors

Repellents deter organisms from getting close to treated surfaces. Oviposition deterrents, which make ovipositing females move away, are included among repellents. Attractants entice or lure insects or natural enemies, whereas developmental disruptors alter or inhibit the development of eggs, larvae/nymphs, and pupae.
The direct airborne repellent test is suitable for testing volatile compounds without a contradicting effect due to a sense of taste [106,107]. It uses a bioassay tube constructed of clear plastic pipe with two open ends and a hole midway down the tube. Small chambers are formed at each end by inserting mesh net rings. One end is left empty as the control, whereas MBe-treated filter paper is placed at the other end. Randomly collected adults are released into the pipe via the middle hole, and their position is recorded [81].
Using the test described above, MBe displayed repellent activities toward adults of B. tabaci under laboratory and greenhouse conditions [81]. The ability of MBe to repel B. tabaci was concentration- and time-dependent. At 2%, repellency was highest, MBe for 1 h, 3 h, and 6 h post-treatment, with repellencies of 78.2%, 82.1%, and 55.1%, respectively [81]. A choice test was conducted with MBe on treated tomato plants versus untreated plants; maximum repellency was found using a 2% MBe solution at 24 h (96.1%) and 48 h (89.1%) post-treatment [81]. Moreover, MBe acted as a strong oviposition deterrent against adult B. tabaci in a choice test. At a 2% MBe solution for 24 h (98.2% deterrence) and 48 h (94.9% deterrence) post-treatment, the most effective oviposition deterrent was observed [81].
The behavior of T. urticae adult females was strongly affected by MBe under greenhouse conditions [82]. At 24 h post-treatment, the highest repellent effects were observed. At this time, approximately 52%, 60%, 64%, and 84% of adult female mites were repelled at MBe concentrations of 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1%, respectively. Reportedly, the mites were repelled significantly by MBe-treated plants compared to water-sprayed plants throughout the 7-day experiment. The maximum observed repellencies recorded for this species were 91.9% for 1% MBe and 77.4% for 0.5% MBe at 24 h post-treatment [82].
In response to MBe in a laboratory bioassay, Larson et al. [108] determined the behavioral activity of the common bed bug. Reportedly, MBe repelled adult C. lectularius over a 1 h period. Furthermore, using an EthoVision video system designed to track the movement of individuals, the authors noted that MBe treatment resulted in a reduction in the time spent within the target zone. Finally, Zhang et al. [109] reported that MBe identified from ylang-ylang EO had strong repellent effects against the invasive stink bug H. halys. The authors found that MBe significantly reduced trap catches of H. halys by 72%. In particular, MBe was likely responsible for the repellency of the corresponding EO.
Conversely, the attraction of some species to MBe was demonstrated by Feng et al. [45]. They reported that a seven-component blend comprising MBe was more effective and selective for attracting D. suzukii under field conditions than the currently used standard apple cider vinegar bait.

5. Toxicity of Methyl Benzoate to Natural Enemies, Pollinators, Plants, and Mammals

Integrated pest management (IPM) strategies against crop pests must consider the side effects of insecticides on nontarget organisms, including species that act as biological control agents and pollinators. The side effects of MBe have been assessed for just a few predatory insects. One study tested the contact toxicity of MBe to larvae and adults of the green lacewing Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) under laboratory conditions [48]. The study results showed that 1% MBe solution killed 20% and 12% of first- and second-instar larvae, respectively, within 24 h of application. Adult mortality was 6.7% at 24 h post-treatment. In contrast, no lacewing mortality was recorded at 24 h in the residual assays (as opposed to the direct applications above) [48]. In a second study, in which the adults of the predatory bug Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Miridae) were exposed to plant surfaces treated with a 1% MBe solution, the observed mortality was 17.8% and 13.3%, under laboratory and greenhouse conditions, respectively [47]. Therefore, according to the rating scheme of the International Organization for Biological Control, 1% MBe can be classified as harmless to N. tenuis [47].
Furthermore, MBe is a component of honeybee semiochemicals. Recently, Zhu et al. [46] evaluated the potential adverse impact of MBe on Apis mellifera (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) using two different treatment methods: (1) a spray to test for contact toxicity and (2) feeding to test for oral toxicity. The spray toxicities of imidacloprid and abamectin were 2002 and 173,163 times greater, respectively, than that of MBe. Thus, this earned MBe a toxicity ranking of 35th out of the 43 tested chemicals. This ranking was lower than all conventional insecticides [46]. Sequel to this, MBe is considered safe for honeybees (Figure 2).
The physical and chemical features of a pesticide have a significant impact on the biological activity of the pesticide against the target pest species [110]. The physical properties determine the pesticide’s mode of action, dosage, mode of application, and subsequent environmental chemodynamics [110,111]. Moreover, the toxicity of a pesticide depends on the pest species’ body size, developmental stage (egg, larva, or adult), and behavior [112]. From these stated facts, MBe results clearly revealed that susceptibility to MBe will be greater among pest species such as aphids, whiteflies, and two-spotted spider mites than among their natural enemies, including lacewings and predatory bugs [47,48,81,82]. Hence, we summarized that the reduced susceptibility among the predators may be related to the higher volume of the predator’s body compared to the pests [113].
Pesticides are characterized by different degrees of toxicity to target and nontarget organisms [114,115]. Additionally, they may enter the body by different avenues depending on species, metabolic peculiarities, and susceptibility to toxins [116]. Differences in susceptibility to MBe between herbivorous pest species and omnivorous natural enemies are worth investigating further.
Mostafiz et al. [82], by spraying three-week-old plants with 1% MBe solution every 7 days for three weeks, examined whether MBe is phytotoxic to common spider mite host plants. The previous 1% concentration of MBe, at which more than 90% of adults of T. urticae were killed, was used as a worst-case scenario to search for any possible phytotoxic effects. However, none were found. Furthermore, no phytotoxic symptoms, such as wilting, vein clearing, necrosis, epinasty, or hyponasty, were observed in the tested plants. This suggests that MBe is not phytotoxic at concentrations up to 1%.
Relatively, MBe exerts relatively low toxicity to mammals. The acute oral toxicities of MBe to rats, mice, rabbits, and guinea pigs are 3.5, 3.33, 2.17, and 4.1 g/kg, respectively, based on the measured LD50 values [80,117,118]. The LD50 value of MBe for the domestic cat (applied to the skin) is 10 g/kg [117].

6. Sublethal Effects of Methyl Benzoate

Insecticides that have sublethal effects on insect biology are vital for IPM programs. Sublethal effects of pesticides may affect insect biology in different ways, such as reducing oviposition, lengthening the development time of immature stages, and decreasing their longevity [119,120,121]. Additionally, when insects are exposed to insecticides at sublethal levels, they exhibit changes in various behavioral characteristics such as mobility, navigation/orientation, food-seeking, oviposition site selection, and others [120]. Sublethal doses of insecticides may also potentially alter the chemical communication systems of insects, reducing their chances of reproducing in insects that depend heavily on olfactory communication [120]. Recently, Feng and Zhang [14] revealed that MBe had a significant impact on D. suzukii development. Mostafiz et al. [122] found that a sublethal dose of MBe (LC30 = 0.22%) significantly reduced the fecundity and longevity of the aphid A. gossypii in the treated parental generation (F0) and their untreated progeny (F1). Moreover, MBe prolonged the developmental duration of each immature instar of the F1 generation compared with the controls. In another study, Mostafiz et al. [47] investigated the sublethal effects of MBe on the feeding rates of adults of N. tenuis consuming eggs of the whitefly B. tabaci. There was no significant effect on the rate of consumption. Recently, Zhu et al. [46] discovered that MBe reduced honey bee flight ability. As MBe concentrations increased, the honeybee flying scores declined.

7. Lack of Knowledge of Molecular Target(s) and the Mode of Action of Methyl Benzoate

The method of action of plant-derived EOs has been determined in a few cases at the molecular level. Studies have found that EO compounds change the activities of various bioactive target molecules within the cells, including acetylcholinesterase (AChE), octopamine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), in insects [123,124,125]. The AChE of insects is an important potential target molecule of various plant-derived EOs [123]. AChE is a cholinergic enzyme found in the muscles and nerves of both insects and mammals, especially at postsynaptic neuromuscular junctions [126,127,128,129,130]. EO and its constituents can inhibit AChE activity. Therefore, they can also induce hyperstimulation or paralysis of pest insect species. EO components such as carvacrol, eugenol, limonene, linalool, thymol, α-Pinene, α-Terpineol, α-Terpinene, and 1,8-Cineole inhibited AChE activity of A. aegypti, D. suzukii, and S. oryzae [131,132,133]. Octopamine is a biogenic amine that acts as a neurotransmitter, neurohormone, and neuromodulator in invertebrates [134,135,136,137]. Many previous research articles have demonstrated that EOs and their primary constituents similarly affect octopamine. For example, eugenol, α-terpineol, and their mixture with cinnamyl-alcohol induced an increase in the cAMP level in the nervous system of American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana (L.) (Blattodea: Blattidae) [138]. In another study, Pandey et al. [139] reported that EOs including eugenol, cinnamic alcohol, and phenyl ethyl alcohol could lead to a significant increase in octopamine levels in the central nervous system of German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattidae). Plant-derived EOs can inhibit GABA found in insects by binding to specific receptors in the post-synaptic cell membranes [140,141,142]. In another study, Tong and Coats [143] discovered three monoterpenoids (carvacrol, pulegone, and thymol) significantly increased the Cl uptake induced by GABA in membranes prepared from ventral nerve cords of the American cockroach. Additionally, EOs interfere with the activities of enzymes and other vital molecules associated with xenobiotic metabolism or insect respiration, such as carboxylesterase, cytochrome P450s, and glutathione S-transferase (GSTs) [144,145,146,147]. However, at the molecular level, the role of MBe has rarely been investigated. Kravets-Beker et al., as reported by Opdyke [148] and Kravets-Bekker and Ivanova [80], found that MBe reduced the cholinesterase activity of rats at a dose of 500 mg/kg. In addition, this same study found that frequent application of high doses resulted in damage to the central nervous system [148]. However, the exact mode of action was not investigated. The study results suggested that MBe potentially acts on the nervous system in animal tissues.
Furthermore, in transmitting information between the nerve cells, AChE happens to be one of the most important enzymes. Thus, this enzyme is often designated as the target molecule for organophosphate and carbamate insecticides [126]. Most recently, Mostafiz et al. [122] revealed that AChE activity in cotton aphids, A. gossypii, treated with MBe (0.22%) was reduced by 65% compared to the control. A molecular-docking program was also used to simulate how MBe and AChE would interact with each other. The program found that a single MBe molecule docked at the catalytic site of the AChE molecule.
Additionally, MBe exhibited hydrophobic interactions with at least five AChE amino acids [122]. These results suggest that MBe is potentially targeting AChE at a molecular level. Recently, Zhu et al. [46] investigated the influence of MBe on the detoxifying enzyme systems of honey bees. The findings revealed that cytochrome P450 activity varied the most in response to changes in MB concentrations among the three primary enzymes studied. Conversely, MB had no influence on GST and esterase (EST) activity.
Some benzoate derivatives, such as sodium benzoate and methyl hydroxybenzoate, have bacteriostatic and fungistatic properties. They have been used as preservatives in a variety of food and cosmetic products [149,150]. These compounds have been shown to act on nervous conduction in the spinal root fibers of cats [151]. At a higher dose, sodium benzoate can induce neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and teratogenicity during the early embryogenesis of zebrafish larvae [152]. This suggests that MBe also has multiple target molecules with which it reacts in different action modes. MBe acts as a contact toxin, fumigant, repellent, or attractant to different insect species.
Interestingly, the diversity of targets in a multi-site bio-insecticide will considerably lower the possibility of resistance [153]. A single compound can interact with multiple targets in the insect species, causing toxic effects on the organism. For example, Enan [138,154] Tong and Coats [143,155] found that carvacrol and pulegone had effects on both octopamine and GABA receptors in insects. Further investigations into the modes of action of MBe on various target molecules are needed to understand how MBe affects insect systems.

8. Future Perspectives

The use of plant-derived natural pesticides can: (1) prevent the accumulation of toxic chemical residues in soil; (2) reduce water pollution due to pesticides; and (3) limit the bioaccumulation of certain pesticides in food chains. EOs and their constituents generated from plants are significant sources of novel bioactive compounds with broad-spectrum insecticidal actions. However, several studies have focused on the insecticidal activity of MBe on target organisms. On the other hand, few studies have focused on the effects of MBe on nontarget organisms. Similarly, the modes of action for MBe have not been well clarified. Additionally, the efficacy of MBe as a pesticide has not yet been confirmed under open greenhouse or field conditions. In this review, this has been summarized.
Recently, many studies have confirmed that MBe demonstrates substantial fumigation toxicity against numerous postharvest storage and urban pest insects. Some pests include maize weevil, rice weevil, lesser grain borer, red flour beetle, warehouse beetle, Indian meal moth, bed bug, etc. Furthermore, phosphine has been widely used as an alternative fumigant to methyl bromide, known for its ozone-depleting property and detrimental effect on human health [156]. Excessive use of phosphine increased phosphine-resistant insect populations globally. Furthermore, the significance of phosphine in the global postharvest supply chain implies that stakeholders are likely to employ an alternative fumigant if it is effective, affordable, and does not impact product quality. MBe might be a viable alternative to conventional fumigants to manage postharvest storage insect pests in such circumstances. Thus, more studies are needed to analyze and encourage the natural evaporation of MBe in commercial-scale trials, increase control efficiency, and establish commercial-scale treatment methods.
Additionally, MBe has a high level of mosquito control effectiveness. Therefore, MBe can be evaluated for its viability as a long-term, selective, biodegradable, and ecologically friendly option as a potential mosquito control agent. A mosquito control method that uses environmentally friendly active components will help reduce our reliance on synthetic pesticides. Meanwhile, formulations for employing this chemical in vector control must be investigated and established. Sublethal doses of MBe are not toxic to natural enemies, making them excellent candidates for incorporation into IPM programs in conjunction with natural enemies to control particular greenhouse pests such as thrips, aphids, whiteflies, and mites. Therefore, more research is needed to determine the effectiveness of MBe concentrations and their compatibility with natural enemies in the field. However, MBe formulations for pest management have yet to be developed. Incorporating environmentally friendly active components into a pest control program can lessen our dependency on synthetic pesticides. Organic compounds may be colonized and metabolized by microorganisms. More information about the effects of abiotic and biotic factors on the performance of MBe is of the essence.

9. Conclusions

The environmental risks associated with the continuous use of synthetic pesticides have stimulated interest in developing plant-based insecticides with selective toxicity to insects but minimal effects on nontarget species. Biopesticides tend to be safer for nontarget organisms than synthetic alternatives. Biopesticides are frequently better with the overall ecosystem or agroecosystem, considering their lower environmental risk. In addition, their potent use often depends on understanding the interaction with the environment as a whole (e.g., soil type, moisture, temperature). Pressure to seek alternative pest control products is partly driven by the growing demand for higher food safety and quality standards. Due to its diverse pesticide activities, MBe could be a suitable product for IPM programs. A patent (US 9,629,362 B1) application has been submitted for the pesticide use of MBe to the US EPA.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, M.M.M., E.H. and K.-Y.L.; formal analysis, M.M.M.; investigation, M.M.M.; data curation, E.H. and K.-Y.L.; writing—original draft preparation, M.M.M.; writing—review and editing, M.M.M., E.H. and K.-Y.L.; supervision, K.-Y.L.; project administration, K.-Y.L.; funding acquisition, K.-Y.L. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (2016R1A6A1A05011910).

Institutional Review Board Statement

Not applicable.

Informed Consent Statement

Not applicable.

Data Availability Statement

Not applicable.


We gratefully acknowledge Penelope J. Gullan, Research School of Biology, the Australian National University, Canberra, Australia, for advice on writing this manuscript and assistance with English expression.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


  1. Culliney, T.W. Crop losses to arthropods. In Integrated Pest Management: Pesticide Problems; Pimentel, D., Peshin, R., Eds.; Springer: Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2014; Volume 3, pp. 201–225. [Google Scholar]
  2. Damalas, C.A.; Koutroubas, S.D. Botanical pesticides for eco-friendly pest management. In Pesticides in Crop Production; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.: Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2020; pp. 181–193. [Google Scholar]
  3. Ebadollahi, A.; Ziaee, M.; Palla, F. Essential oils extracted from different species of the lamiaceae plant family as prospective bioagents against several detrimental pests. Molecules 2020, 25, 1556. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  4. Chen, M.; Chang, C.-H.; Tao, L.; Lu, C. Residential exposure to pesticide during childhood and childhood cancers: A meta-analysis. Pediatrics 2015, 136, 719–729. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  5. Damalas, C.A.; Eleftherohorinos, I.G. Pesticide exposure, safety issues, and risk assessment indicators. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 1402–1419. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Goulson, D. REVIEW: An overview of the environmental risks posed by neonicotinoid insecticides. J. Appl. Ecol. 2013, 50, 977–987. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  7. Naqqash, M.N.; Gökçe, A.; Bakhsh, A.; Salim, M. Insecticide resistance and its molecular basis in urban insect pests. Parasitol. Res. 2016, 115, 1363–1373. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  8. Zikankuba, V.L.; Mwanyika, G.; Ntwenya, J.E.; James, A. Pesticide regulations and their malpractice implications on food and environment safety. Cogent. Food. Agric. 2019, 5, 1601544. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  9. Ahmed, M.; Peiwen, Q.; Gu, Z.; Liu, Y.; Sikandar, A.; Hussain, D.; Javeed, A.; Shafi, J.; Iqbal, M.F.; An, R.; et al. Insecticidal activity and biochemical composition of Citrullus colocynthis, Cannabis indica and Artemisia argyi extracts against cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae L.). Sci. Rep. 2020, 10, 522. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  10. Campos, E.V.R.; Proença, P.L.F.; Oliveira, J.L.; Bakshi, M.; Abhilash, P.C.; Fraceto, L.F. Use of botanical insecticides for sustainable agriculture: Future perspectives. Ecol. Indic. 2019, 105, 483–495. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  11. Dougoud, J.; Toepfer, S.; Bateman, M.; Jenner, W.H. Efficacy of homemade botanical insecticides based on traditional knowledge—A review. Agron. Sustain. Dev. 2019, 39, 37. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  12. Falkowski, M.; Jahn-Oyac, A.; Odonne, G.; Flora, C.; Estevez, Y.; Touré, S.; Boulogne, I.; Robinson, J.-C.; Béreau, D.; Petit, P.; et al. Towards the optimization of botanical insecticides research: Aedes aegypti larvicidal natural products in French Guiana. Acta Trop. 2020, 201, 105179. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  13. Feng, Y.; Chen, J.; Zhang, A. Commercially available natural benzyl esters and their synthetic analogs exhibit different toxicities against insect pests. Sci. Rep. 2018, 8, 7902. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Feng, Y.; Zhang, A. A floral fragrance methyl benzoate is an efficient green pesticide. Sci. Rep. 2017, 7, 42168. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Pavela, R.; Maggi, F.; Iannarelli, R.; Benelli, G. Plant extracts for developing mosquito larvicides: From laboratory to the field, with insights on the modes of action. Acta Trop. 2019, 193, 236–271. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Ruttanaphan, T.; de Sousa, G.; Pengsook, A.; Pluempanupat, W.; Huditz, H.-I.; Bullangpoti, V.; Le Goff, G. A novel insecticidal molecule extracted from Alpinia galanga with potential to control the pest insect Spodoptera frugiperda. Insects 2020, 11, 686. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Isman, M.B. A renaissance for botanical insecticides? Pest Manag. Sci. 2015, 71, 1587–1590. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  18. Pavela, R. History, presence and perspective of using plant extracts as commercial botanical insecticides and farm products for protection against insects—A review. Plant Prot. Sci. 2016, 52, 229–241. [Google Scholar]
  19. Pavela, R.; Benelli, G. Essential oils as ecofriendly biopesticides? challenges and constraints. Trends Plant Sci. 2016, 21, 1000–1007. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  20. Isman, M.B. Bridging the gap: Moving botanical insecticides from the laboratory to the farm. Ind. Crops Prod. 2017, 110, 10–14. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  21. Isman, M.B. Commercial development of plant essential oils and their constituents as active ingredients in bioinsecticides. Phytochem. Rev. 2020, 19, 235–241. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  22. Magierowicz, K.; Górska-Drabik, E.; Golan, K. Effects of plant extracts and essential oils on the behavior of Acrobasis advenella (Zinck.) caterpillars and females. J. Plant Dis. Prot. 2020, 127, 63–71. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  23. Campos, E.V.R.; De Oliveira, J.L.; Pascoli, M.; De Lima, R.; Fraceto, L.F. Neem oil and crop protection: From now to the future. Front. Plant Sci. 2016, 7, 1494. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  24. Chaudhary, S.; Kanwar, R.K.; Sehgal, A.; Cahill, D.M.; Barrow, C.J.; Sehgal, R.; Kanwar, J.R. Progress on Azadirachta indica based biopesticides in replacing synthetic toxic pesticides. Front. Plant Sci. 2017, 8, 610. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. Isman, M.B. Botanical insecticides in the twenty-first century—Fulfilling their promise? Annu. Rev. Entomol. 2020, 65, 233–249. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  26. Pavela, R. Essential oils for the development of eco-friendly mosquito larvicides: A review. Ind. Crops Prod. 2015, 76, 174–187. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  27. Bhavya, M.L.; Chandu, A.G.S.; Devi, S.S. Ocimum tenuiflorum oil, a potential insecticide against rice weevil with anti-acetylcholinesterase activity. Ind. Crops Prod. 2018, 126, 434–439. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  28. Ma, S.; Jia, R.; Guo, M.; Qin, K.; Zhang, L. Insecticidal activity of essential oil from Cephalotaxus sinensis and its main components against various agricultural pests. Ind. Crops Prod. 2020, 150, 112403. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  29. Regnault-Roger, C.; Vincent, C.; Arnason, J.T. Essential oils in insect control: Low-risk products in a high-stakes world. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 2011, 57, 405–424. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  30. Dhifi, W.; Bellili, S.; Jazi, S.; Bahloul, N.; Mnif, W. Essential oil chemical characterization and investigation of some biological activities: A critical review. Medicines 2016, 3, 25. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  31. Eslahi, H.; Fahimi, N.; Sardarian, A.R. Chemical composition of essential oils. In Essential Oils in Food Processing; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.: Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2017; pp. 119–171. [Google Scholar]
  32. Arena, J.S.; Merlo, C.; Defagó, M.T.; Zygadlo, J.A. Insecticidal and antibacterial effects of some essential oils against the poultry pest Alphitobius diaperinus and its associated microorganisms. J. Pest Sci. 2020, 93, 403–414. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  33. Burt, S. Essential oils: Their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods—A review. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 2004, 94, 223–253. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  34. Marrone, P.G. Pesticidal natural products—Status and future potential. Pest Manag. Sci. 2019, 75, 2325–2340. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. Pavela, R.; Govindarajan, M. The essential oil from Zanthoxylum monophyllum a potential mosquito larvicide with low toxicity to the non-target fish Gambusia affinis. J. Pest Sci. 2017, 90, 369–378. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  36. Isman, M.B.; Miresmailli, S.; Machial, C. Commercial opportunities for pesticides based on plant essential oils in agriculture, industry and consumer products. Phytochem. Rev. 2011, 10, 197–204. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  37. Peng, Y.; Bishop, K.S.; Quek, S.Y. Compositional analysis and aroma evaluation of feijoa essential oils from New Zealand grown cultivars. Molecules 2019, 24, 2053. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  38. Nematollahi, N.; Kolev, S.D.; Steinemann, A. Volatile chemical emissions from essential oils. Air Qual. Atmos. Health 2018, 11, 949–954. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  39. Hardy, P.J.; Michael, B.J. Volatile components of feijoa fruits. Phytochemistry 1970, 9, 1355–1357. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  40. Yang, Y.; Isman, M.B.; Tak, J.-H. Insecticidal activity of 28 essential oils and a commercial product containing Cinnamomum cassia bark essential oil against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky. Insects 2020, 11, 474. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  41. Cheong, M.-W.; Loke, X.-Q.; Liu, S.-Q.; Pramudya, K.; Curran, P.; Yu, B. Characterization of volatile compounds and aroma profiles of Malaysian pomelo (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck) blossom and peel. J. Essent. Oil Res. 2011, 23, 34–44. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  42. Tisserand, R.; Young, R. Essential Oil Safety: A Guide for Health Care Professionals, 2nd ed.; Churchill Livingstone: Edinburgh, UK, 2013. [Google Scholar]
  43. Cheong, M.-W.; Liu, S.-Q.; Yeo, J.; Chionh, H.-K.; Pramudya, K.; Curran, P.; Yu, B. Identification of aroma-active compounds in Malaysian pomelo (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck) peel by gas chromatography-olfactometry. J. Essent. Oil Res. 2011, 23, 34–42. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  44. Dudareva, N.; Murfitt, L.M.; Mann, C.J.; Gorenstein, N.; Kolosova, N.; Kish, C.M.; Bonham, C.; Wood, K. Developmental regulation of methyl benzoate biosynthesis and emission in snapdragon flowers. Plant Cell 2000, 12, 949–961. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  45. Feng, Y.; Bruton, R.; Park, A.; Zhang, A. Identification of attractive blend for spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, from apple juice. J. Pest Sci. 2018, 91, 1251–1267. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  46. Zhu, Y.-C.; Wang, Y.; Portilla, M.; Parys, K.; Li, W. Risk and toxicity assessment of a potential natural insecticide, methyl benzoate, in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). Insects 2019, 10, 382. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  47. Mostafiz, M.M.; Hassan, E.; Shim, J.-K.; Lee, K.-Y. Lethal and sublethal effects of methyl benzoate on the predatory bug Nesidiocoris tenuis. Insects 2020, 11, 377. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  48. Mostafiz, M.M.; Hassan, E.; Shim, J.-K.; Lee, K.-Y. Insecticidal efficacy of three benzoate derivatives against Aphis gossypii and its predator Chrysoperla carnea. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 2019, 184, 109653. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  49. Choudhary, M.I.; Naheed, N.; Abbaskhan, A.; Musharraf, S.G.; Siddiqui, H.; Atta-ur-Rahman. Phenolic and other constituents of fresh water fern Salvinia molesta. Phytochemistry 2008, 69, 1018–1023. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  50. Knudsen, J.; Tollsten, L. Trend in floral scent chemistry in pollination syndromes: Floral scent composition in moth-pollinated taxa. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 1993, 113, 263–284. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  51. Effmert, U.; Saschenbrecker, S.; Ross, J.; Negre, F.; Fraser, C.M.; Noel, J.P.; Dudareva, N.; Piechulla, B. Floral benzenoid carboxyl methyltransferases: From in vitro to in planta function. Phytochemistry 2005, 66, 1211–1230. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  52. Shi, S.; Duan, G.; Li, D.; Wu, J.; Liu, X.; Hong, B.; Yi, M.; Zhang, Z. Two-dimensional analysis provides molecular insight into flower scent of Lilium “Siberia”. Sci. Rep. 2018, 8, 5352. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  53. Shaw, G.J.; Ellingham, P.J.; Birch, E.J. Volatile constituents of feijoa—Headspace analysis of intact fruit. J. Sci. Food Agric. 1983, 34, 743–747. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  54. Young, H.; Paterson, V.J.; Burns, D.J.W. Volatile aroma constituents of kiwifruit. J. Sci. Food Agric. 1983, 34, 81–85. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  55. Bartley, J.; Schwede, A. Production of volatile compounds in ripening kiwi fruit (Actinidia chinensis). J. Agric. Food Chem. 1989, 37, 1023–1025. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  56. Binder, R.G.; Flath, R.A. Volatile components of pineapple guava. J. Agric. Food. Chem. 1989, 37, 734–736. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  57. Froehlich, O.; Duque, C.; Schreier, P. Volatile constituents of curuba (Passiflora mollissima) fruit. J. Agric. Food. Chem. 1989, 37, 421–425. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  58. Knudsen, J.T.; Tollsten, L.; Bergström, L.G. Floral scents—A checklist of volatile compounds isolated by head-space techniques. Phytochemistry 1993, 33, 253–280. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  59. Levin, R.A.; Raguso, R.A.; McDade, L.A. Fragrance chemistry and pollinator affinities in Nyctaginaceae. Phytochemistry 2001, 58, 429–440. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  60. Zhao, N.; Guan, J.; Ferrer, J.-L.; Engle, N.; Chern, M.; Ronald, P.; Tschaplinski, T.J.; Chen, F. Biosynthesis and emission of insect-induced methyl salicylate and methyl benzoate from rice. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 2010, 48, 279–287. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  61. Silva, D.B.; Weldegergis, B.T.; Van Loon, J.J.A.; Bueno, V.H.P. Qualitative and quantitative differences in herbivore-induced plant volatile blends from tomato plants infested by either Tuta absoluta or Bemisia tabaci. J. Chem. Ecol. 2017, 43, 53–65. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  62. Schiestl, F.P.; Roubik, D.W. Odor compound detection in male euglossine bees. J. Chem. Ecol. 2003, 29, 253–257. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  63. Murfitt, L.M.; Kolosova, N.; Mann, C.J.; Dudareva, N. Purification and characterization of S-adenosyl-L-methionine: Benzoic acid carboxyl methyltransferase, the enzyme responsible for biosynthesis of the volatile ester methyl benzoate in flowers of Antirrhinum majus. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 2000, 382, 145–151. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  64. Kolosova, N.; Gorenstein, N.; Kish, C.M.; Dudareva, N. Regulation of circadian methyl benzoate emission in diurnally and nocturnally emitting plants. Plant Cell 2001, 13, 2333–2347. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  65. Negre, F.; Kish, C.M.; Boatright, J.; Underwood, B.; Shibuya, K.; Wagner, C.; Clark, D.G.; Dudareva, N. Regulation of methyl benzoate emission after pollination in snapdragon and petunia flowers. Plant Cell 2003, 15, 2992–3006. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  66. Heinrich, B. Bumblebee Economics; Harvard University Press: Cambridge, MA, USA, 2004. [Google Scholar]
  67. El-Sayed, A.M. The Pherobase: Database of Insect Pheromones and Semiochemicals. Available online: (accessed on 25 January 2022).
  68. Bickers, D.R.; Calow, P.; Greim, H.A.; Hanifin, J.M.; Rogers, A.E.; Saurat, J.-H.; Glenn Sipes, I.; Smith, R.L.; Tagami, H. The safety assessment of fragrance materials. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 2003, 37, 218–273. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  69. European-Commission. List of Preservatives Allowed in Cosmetic Products. Available online: products?locale=en (accessed on 25 January 2022).
  70. George, A.B. Fenaroli’s Handbook of Flavor Ingredients; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, USA, 2010. [Google Scholar]
  71. Atkinson, R. A structure-activity relationship for the estimation of rate constants for the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals with organic compounds. Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 1987, 19, 799–828. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  72. Yue, Y.; Wang, L.; Yu, R.; Chen, F.; He, J.; Li, X.; Yu, Y.; Fan, Y. Coordinated and high-level expression of biosynthetic pathway genes is responsible for the production of a major floral scent compound methyl benzoate in Hedychium coronarium. Front. Plant Sci. 2021, 12, 650582. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  73. Widhalm, J.R.; Dudareva, N. A familiar ring to it: Biosynthesis of plant benzoic acids. Mol. Plant 2015, 8, 83–97. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  74. Bolte, K.; Rensing, S.A.; Maier, U.-G. The evolution of eukaryotic cells from the perspective of peroxisomes: Phylogenetic analyses of peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzymes support mitochondria-first models of eukaryotic cell evolution. Bioessays 2015, 37, 195–203. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  75. Adebesin, F.; Widhalm, J.R.; Lynch, J.H.; McCoy, R.M.; Dudareva, N. A peroxisomal thioesterase plays auxiliary roles in plant β-oxidative benzoic acid metabolism. Plant J. 2018, 93, 905–916. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  76. Boatright, J.; Negre, F.; Chen, X.; Kish, C.M.; Wood, B.; Peel, G.; Orlova, I.; Gang, D.; Rhodes, D.; Dudareva, N. Understanding in vivo benzenoid metabolism in petunia petal tissue. Plant Physiol. 2004, 135, 1993–2011. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  77. Verdonk, J.C.; Ric de Vos, C.H.; Verhoeven, H.A.; Haring, M.A.; van Tunen, A.J.; Schuurink, R.C. Regulation of floral scent production in petunia revealed by targeted metabolomics. Phytochemistry 2003, 62, 997–1008. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  78. Qualley, A.V.; Widhalm, J.R.; Adebesin, F.; Kish, C.M.; Dudareva, N. Completion of the core β-oxidative pathway of benzoic acid biosynthesis in plants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2012, 109, 16383–16388. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  79. Klempien, A.; Kaminaga, Y.; Qualley, A.; Nagegowda, D.A.; Widhalm, J.R.; Orlova, I.; Shasany, A.K.; Taguchi, G.; Kish, C.M.; Cooper, B.R.; et al. Contribution of CoA ligases to benzenoid biosynthesis in petunia flowers. Plant Cell 2012, 24, 2015–2030. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  80. Kravets-Bekker, A.A.; Ivanova, O.P. Toxicological characteristics of methyl benzoate and potassium benzoate. Fakt. Vnesh. Sredy Ikh Znac. Zdorovya Naseleniya Russ. 1970, 75, 125–129. [Google Scholar]
  81. Mostafiz, M.M.; Jhan, P.K.; Shim, J.-K.; Lee, K.-Y. Methyl benzoate exhibits insecticidal and repellent activities against Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). PLoS ONE 2018, 13, e0208552. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  82. Mostafiz, M.M.; Shim, J.-K.; Hwang, H.-S.; Bunch, H.; Lee, K.-Y. Acaricidal effects of methyl benzoate against Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) on common crop plants. Pest Manag. Sci. 2020, 76, 2347–2354. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  83. Park, C.G.; Shin, E.; Kim, J. Insecticidal activities of essential oils, Gaultheria fragrantissima and Illicium verum, their components and analogs against Callosobruchus chinensis adults. J. Asia-Pac. Entomol. 2016, 19, 269–273. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  84. Oliveira, M.R.V.; Henneberry, T.J.; Anderson, P. History, History, current status, and collaborative research projects for Bemisia tabaci. Crop Prot. 2001, 20, 709–723. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  85. Stansly, P.A.; Naranjo, S.E. Bemisia: Bionomics and Management of a Global Pest; Springer: Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2010. [Google Scholar]
  86. Chen, J.; Rashid, T.; Feng, G.; Feng, Y.; Zhang, A.; Grodowitz, M.J. Insecticidal activity of methyl benzoate analogs against red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 2019, 112, 691–698. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  87. Larson, N.R.; Nega, M.; Zhang, A.; Feldlaufer, M. Toxicity of methyl benzoate and analogs to adult Aedes aegypti. J. Am. Mosq. Control. Assoc. 2021, 37, 83–86. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  88. Mostafiz, M.M.; Ryu, J.; Akintola, A.A.; Choi, K.S.; Hwang, U.W.; Hassan, E.; Lee, K.-Y. Larvicidal activity of methyl benzoate, a volatile organic compound, against the mosquitoes Aedes Albopictus and Culex Pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). J. Med. Entomol. 2022, tjab230. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  89. Ebert, T.; Cartwright, B. Biology and ecology of Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae). Southwest. Entomol. 1997, 22, 116–153. [Google Scholar]
  90. Blackman, R.L.; Eastop, V.F. Aphids on the World’s Crops: An Identification and Information Guide, 2nd ed.; John Wiley & Sons Ltd.: Chichester, UK, 2000. [Google Scholar]
  91. Takafuji, A.; Ozawa, A.; Nemoto, H.; Gotoh, T. Spider mites of Japan: Their biology and control. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 2000, 24, 319–335. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  92. Lee, Y.-S.; Song, M.-H.; Ahn, K.-S.; Lee, K.-Y.; Kim, J.-W.; Kim, G.-H. Monitoring of acaricide resistance in two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) populations from rose greenhouses in Korea. J. Asia-Pac. Entomol. 2003, 6, 91–96. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  93. Morrison, L.W.; Porter, S.D.; Daniels, E.; Korzukhin, M.D. Potential global range expansion of the invasive fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Biol. Invasions 2004, 6, 183–191. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  94. Vinson, S.B. Impact of the invasion of the imported fire ant. Insect Sci. 2013, 20, 439–455. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  95. Anukiruthika, T.; Jian, F.; Jayas, D.S. Movement and behavioral response of stored product insects under stored grain environments—A review. J. Stored Prod. Res. 2021, 90, 101752. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  96. Nayak, M.K.; Daglish, G.J.; Phillips, T.W.; Ebert, P.R. Resistance to the fumigant phosphine and its management in insect pests of stored products: A global perspective. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 2020, 65, 333–350. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  97. Kim, S.-W.; Kang, J.; Park, I.-K. Fumigant toxicity of apiaceae essential oils and their constituents against Sitophilus oryzae and their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. J. Asia-Pac. Entomol. 2013, 16, 443–448. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  98. Zhang, Z.; Yang, T.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, L.; Xie, Y. Fumigant toxicity of monoterpenes against fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster. Ind. Crops Prod. 2016, 81, 147–151. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  99. Morrison, W.R.; Larson, N.L.; Brabec, D.; Zhang, A. Methyl benzoate as a putative alternative, environmentally friendly fumigant for the control of stored product insects. J. Econ. Entomol. 2019, 112, 2458–2468. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  100. Larson, N.R.; Zhang, A.; Feldlaufer, M.F. Fumigation activities of methyl benzoate and Its derivatives against the common bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). J. Med. Entomol. 2020, 57, 187–191. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  101. Yang, X.; Liu, Y.-B.; Feng, Y.; Zhang, A. Methyl benzoate fumigation for control of post-harvest pests and its effects on apple quality. J. Appl. Entomol. 2020, 144, 191–200. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  102. Mostafiz, M.M.; Hassan, E.; Acharya, R.; Shim, J.-K.; Lee, K.-Y. Methyl benzoate is superior to other natural fumigants for controlling the Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella). Insects 2021, 12, 23. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  103. Thorvilson, H.G.; Phillips, S.A., Jr.; Sorensen, A.A. An innovative thermo-fumigation technique for control of red imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). J. Agric. Entomol. 1989, 6, 31–36. [Google Scholar]
  104. Doggett, S.L.; Miller, D.M.; Lee, C.-Y. Advances in the Biology and Management of Modern Bed Bugs, 1st ed.; Wiley-Blackwell: Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2018. [Google Scholar]
  105. Doggett, S.L.; Dwyer, D.E.; Peñas, P.F.; Russell, R.C. Natural compounds for controlling Drosophila suzukii. a review. Agron. Sustain. Dev. 2012, 25, 164–192. [Google Scholar]
  106. Dam, D.; Molitor, D.; Beyer, M. Natural compounds for controlling Drosophila suzukii—A review. Agron. Sustain. Dev. 2019, 39, 53. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  107. Kwon, Y.; Kim, S.H.; Ronderos, D.S.; Lee, Y.; Akitake, B.; Woodward, O.M.; Guggino, W.B.; Smith, D.P.; Montell, C. Drosophila TRPA1 channel is required to avoid the naturally occurring insect repellent citronellal. Curr. Biol. 2010, 20, 1672–1678. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  108. Larson, N.R.; Strickland, J.; Zhang, A.; Feldlaufer, M.F. Behavioral activity of methyl benzoate against the common bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). J. Entomol. Sci. 2020, 55, 344–349. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  109. Zhang, Q.-H.; Schneidmiller, R.G.; Hoover, D.R.; Zhou, G.; Margaryan, A.; Bryant, P. Essential oils as spatial repellents for the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). J. Appl. Entomol. 2014, 138, 490–499. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  110. Lushchak, V.I.; Matviishyn, T.M.; Husak, V.V.; Storey, J.M.; Storey, K.B. Pesticide toxicity: A mechanistic approach. EXCLI J. 2018, 17, 1101–1136. [Google Scholar]
  111. Zacharia, J.T. Identity, Physical and Chemical Properties of Pesticides. In Pesticides in the Modern World: Trends in Pesticides Analysis; Stoytcheva, M., Ed.; IntechOpen: Rijeka, Croatia, 2011. [Google Scholar]
  112. Rodriguez-Saona, C.; Wanumen, A.C.; Salamanca, J.; Holdcraft, R.; Kyryczenko-Roth, V. Toxicity of insecticides on various life stages of two tortricid pests of cranberries and on a non-target predator. Insects 2016, 7, 15. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  113. Fernandes, F.L.; Bacci, L.; Fernandes, M.S. Impact and selectivity of insecticides to predators and parasitoids. EntomoBrasilis 2010, 3, 1–10. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  114. Bolognesi, C.; Merlo, F.D. Pesticides: Human health effects. In Encyclopedia of Environmental Health, 2nd ed.; Nriagu, J., Ed.; Elsevier: Oxford, UK, 2019; pp. 118–132. [Google Scholar]
  115. Khan, M.Z.; Law, F.C.P. Adverse effects of pesticides and related chemicals on enzyme and hormone systems of fish, amphibians and reptiles: A review. Proc. Pak. Acad. Sci. 2005, 42, 315–323. [Google Scholar]
  116. Krieger, R.I. Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, 2nd ed.; Hayes’ Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology; Academic Press: Cambridge, MA, USA, 2010. [Google Scholar]
  117. Graham, B.E.; Kuizenga, M.H. Toxicity studies on benzyl benzoate and related benzyl compounds. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1945, 84, 358–362. [Google Scholar] [PubMed]
  118. Jenner, P.M.; Hagan, E.C.; Taylor, J.M.; Cook, E.L.; Fitzhugh, O.G. Food flavourings and compounds of related structure I. Acute oral toxicity. Food Cosmet. Toxicol. 1964, 2, 327–343. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  119. Desneux, N.; Decourtye, A.; Delpuech, J.-M. The sublethal effects of pesticides on beneficial arthropods. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 2007, 52, 81–106. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  120. De França, S.M.; Breda, M.O.; Barbosa, D.R.; Araujo, A.M.; Guedes, C.A. The sublethal effects of insecticides in insects. In Biological Control of Pest and Vector Insects; IntechOpen: London, UK, 2017; pp. 23–39. [Google Scholar]
  121. Müller, C. Impacts of sublethal insecticide exposure on insects—Facts and knowledge gaps. Basic Appl. Ecol. 2018, 30, 1–10. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  122. Mostafiz, M.M.; Alam, M.B.; Chi, H.; Hassan, E.; Shim, J.-K.; Lee, K.-Y. Effects of sublethal doses of methyl benzoate on the life history traits and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of Aphis gossypii. Agronomy 2020, 10, 1313. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  123. Jankowska, M.; Rogalska, J.; Wyszkowska, J.; Stankiewicz, M. Molecular targets for components of essential oils in the insect nervous system—A review. Molecules 2017, 23, 34. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  124. Pang, Y.-P.; Brimijoin, S.; Ragsdale, D.W.; Zhu, K.Y.; Suranyi, R. Novel and viable acetylcholinesterase target site for developing effective and environmentally safe insecticides. Curr. Drug Targets 2012, 13, 471–482. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  125. Dassanayake, M.K.; Chong, C.H.; Khoo, T.-J.; Figiel, A.; Szumny, A.; Choo, C.M. Synergistic field crop pest management properties of plant-derived essential oils in combination with synthetic pesticides and bioactive molecules: A review. Foods 2021, 10, 2016. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  126. Colović, M.B.; Krstić, D.Z.; Lazarević-Pašti, T.D.; Bondžić, A.M.; Vasić, V.M. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors: Pharmacology and toxicology. Curr. Neuropharmacol. 2013, 11, 315–335. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  127. Gnagey, A.L.; Forte, M.; Rosenberry, T.L. Isolation and characterization of acetylcholinesterase from Drosophila. J. Biol. Chem. 1987, 262, 13290–13298. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  128. Bourguet, D.; Roig, A.; Toutant, J.-P.; Arpagaus, M. Analysis of molecular forms and pharmacological properties of acetylcholinesterase in several mosquito species. Neurochem. Int. 1997, 31, 65–72. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  129. Marcel, V.; Palacios, L.; Pertuy, C.; Masson, P.; Fournier, D. Two invertebrate acetylcholinesterases show activation followed by inhibition with substrate concentration. Biochem. J. 1998, 329, 329–334. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  130. Trang, A.; Khandhar, P.B. Physiology, Acetylcholinesterase. In StatPearls; StatPearls Publishing: St. Petersburg, FL, USA, 2019. [Google Scholar]
  131. Lee, S.E.; Lee, B.H.; Choi, W.S.; Park, B.S.; Kim, J.G.; Campbell, B.C. Fumigant toxicity of volatile natural products from Korean spices and medicinal plants towards the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L). Pest Manag. Sci. 2001, 57, 548–553. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  132. Park, C.G.; Jang, M.; Yoon, K.A.; Kim, J. Insecticidal and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of lamiaceae plant essential oils and their major components against Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Ind. Crops Prod. 2016, 89, 507–513. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  133. Anderson, J.A.; Coats, J.R. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition by nootkatone and carvacrol in arthropods. Pestic. Biochem. Phys. 2012, 102, 124–128. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  134. Evans, P.D. Biogenic amines in the insect nervous system. In Advances in Insect Physiology; Berridge, M.J., Treherne, J.E., Wigglesworth, V.B., Eds.; Academic Press: Cambridge, MA, USA, 1980; Volume 15, pp. 317–473. [Google Scholar]
  135. Atwood, H.L.; Klose, M.K. Neuromuscular transmission modulation at invertebrate neuromuscular junctions. In Encyclopedia of Neuroscience; Squire, L.R., Ed.; Academic Press: Oxford, UK, 2009; pp. 671–690. [Google Scholar]
  136. Farooqui, T. Octopamine-mediated neuromodulation of insect senses. Neurochem. Res. 2007, 32, 1511–1529. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  137. Nathanson, J.A. Octopamine receptors, adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate, and neural control of firefly flashing. Science 1979, 203, 65–68. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  138. Enan, E. Insecticidal activity of essential oils: Octopaminergic sites of action. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part C Toxicol. Pharmacol. 2001, 130, 325–337. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  139. Pandey, C.; Li, W.; Wang, Y.; Jiang, S. Octopamine levels in Blattella germanica L. tissues by capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2005, 6, 188–197. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  140. Sattelle, D.B. GABA receptors of insects. In Advances in Insect Physiology; Evans, P.D., Wigglesworth, V.B., Eds.; Academic Press: Cambridge, MA, USA, 1990; Volume 22, pp. 1–113. [Google Scholar]
  141. Sigel, E.; Steinmann, M.E. Structure, function, and modulation of GABA(A) receptors. J. Biol. Chem. 2012, 287, 40224–40231. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  142. Ben-Ari, Y.; Khalilov, I.; Kahle, K.T.; Cherubini, E. The GABA excitatory/inhibitory shift in brain maturation and neurological disorders. Neuroscientist 2012, 18, 467–486. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  143. Tong, F.; Coats, J.R. Effects of monoterpenoid insecticides on [3H]-TBOB binding in house fly GABA receptor and 36Cl− uptake in American cockroach ventral nerve cord. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 2010, 98, 317–324. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  144. Yu, H.-Z.; Xu, J.-P.; Wang, X.-Y.; Ma, Y.; Yu, D.; Fei, D.-Q.; Zhang, S.-Z.; Wang, W.-L. Identification of four ATP-binding cassette transporter genes in Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and their expression in response to insecticide treatment. J. Insect Sci. 2017, 17, 44. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  145. Merzendorfer, H. Chitin synthesis inhibitors: Old molecules and new developments. Insect Sci. 2013, 20, 121–138. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  146. Liao, M.; Xiao, J.J.; Zhou, L.J.; Liu, Y.; Wu, X.W.; Hua, R.M.; Wang, G.R.; Cao, H.Q. Insecticidal activity of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil and RNA-Seq analysis of Sitophilus zeamais transcriptome in response to oil fumigation. PLoS ONE 2016, 11, e0167748. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  147. Liao, M.; Xiao, J.J.; Zhou, L.J.; Yao, X.; Tang, F.; Hua, R.M.; Wu, X.W.; Cao, H.Q. Chemical composition, insecticidal and biochemical effects of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil on the Helicoverpa armigera. J. Appl. Entomol. 2017, 141, 721–728. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  148. Opdyke, D.L. Monographs on fragrance raw materials. Food. Cosmet. Toxicol. 1979, 17, 357–390. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  149. Pongsavee, M. Effect of sodium benzoate preservative on micronucleus induction, chromosome break, and Ala40Thr superoxide dismutase gene mutation in lymphocytes. Biomed. Res. Int. 2015, 2015, 103512. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  150. Yadav, A.; Kumar, A.; Das, M.; Tripathi, A. Sodium benzoate, a food preservative, affects the functional and activation status of splenocytes at non cytotoxic dose. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2016, 88, 40–47. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  151. Nathan, P.W.; Sears, T.A. Action of methyl hydroxybenzoate on nervous conduction. Nature 1961, 192, 668–669. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  152. Tsay, H.-J.; Wang, Y.-H.; Chen, W.-L.; Huang, M.-Y.; Chen, Y.-H. Treatment with sodium benzoate leads to malformation of zebrafish larvae. Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 2007, 29, 562–569. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  153. Siegwart, M.; Graillot, B.; Blachere Lopez, C.; Besse, S.; Bardin, M.; Nicot, P.C.; Lopez-Ferber, M. Resistance to bio-insecticides or how to enhance their sustainability: A review. Front. Plant Sci. 2015, 6, 381. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  154. Enan, E.E. Molecular and pharmacological analysis of an octopamine receptor from American cockroach and fruit fly in response to plant essential oils. Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. 2005, 59, 161–171. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  155. Tong, F.; Coats, J.R. Quantitative structure-activity relationships of monoterpenoid binding activities to the housefly GABA receptor. Pest Manag. Sci. 2012, 68, 1122–1129. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  156. Bell, C.H. Pest Control of stored food products: Insects and Mites. In Hygiene in Food Processing, 2nd ed.; Lelieveld, H.L.M., Holah, J.T., Napper, D., Eds.; Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition; Woodhead Publishing: Cambridge, UK, 2014; pp. 494–538. [Google Scholar]
Figure 1. The biosynthesis network for plant benzoic acid. The shikimate/chorismate pathway proposed the biosynthesis of methyl benzoate in plants by the shikimate/chorismate pathway and via phenylalanine. The carboxyl carbon of shikimate is labeled (®), as is the β-carbon of phenylalanine (®). The plant enzymes involved in plant benzoic acid biosynthesis for which genes have been cloned are also indicated. Black and blue arrows show the existence and absence, respectively, of genetic evidence for a given reaction. Black and dark red enzymes indicate the presence and absence, respectively, of biochemical evidence for a given response. Question marks indicate the proposed steps with no available information. CM, chorismate mutase; PDT, prephenate dehydratase; PPY-AT, phenylpyruvate aminotransferase; PAL, l-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase; Ph-CNL, Petunia hybrida cinnamoyl-CoA ligase; PhCHD, P. hybrida cinnamoyl-CoA hydratase/dehydrogenase; PhKAT1, P. hybrida 3-ketoacyl thiolase 1; TE, thioesterase; BALDH, benzaldehyde dehydrogenase; SAM, S-adenosyl-l-methionine; BAMT, benzoic acid methyltransferase. In proposing this pathway, we utilized data from publications by Yue et al. [72] (licensed under CC BY 4.0) and by Widhalm and Dudareva [73].
Figure 1. The biosynthesis network for plant benzoic acid. The shikimate/chorismate pathway proposed the biosynthesis of methyl benzoate in plants by the shikimate/chorismate pathway and via phenylalanine. The carboxyl carbon of shikimate is labeled (®), as is the β-carbon of phenylalanine (®). The plant enzymes involved in plant benzoic acid biosynthesis for which genes have been cloned are also indicated. Black and blue arrows show the existence and absence, respectively, of genetic evidence for a given reaction. Black and dark red enzymes indicate the presence and absence, respectively, of biochemical evidence for a given response. Question marks indicate the proposed steps with no available information. CM, chorismate mutase; PDT, prephenate dehydratase; PPY-AT, phenylpyruvate aminotransferase; PAL, l-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase; Ph-CNL, Petunia hybrida cinnamoyl-CoA ligase; PhCHD, P. hybrida cinnamoyl-CoA hydratase/dehydrogenase; PhKAT1, P. hybrida 3-ketoacyl thiolase 1; TE, thioesterase; BALDH, benzaldehyde dehydrogenase; SAM, S-adenosyl-l-methionine; BAMT, benzoic acid methyltransferase. In proposing this pathway, we utilized data from publications by Yue et al. [72] (licensed under CC BY 4.0) and by Widhalm and Dudareva [73].
Agriculture 12 00378 g001
Figure 2. Toxicity differences of methyl benzoate against various arthropod pests and nontarget organisms: Mortality data from 1% MBe concentration after 48 h of exposure. The image was adapted from Feng and Zhang (licensed under CC BY 4.0), Mostafiz et al., and Zhu et al. (licensed under CC BY 4.0) [14,46,47,48,81,82].
Figure 2. Toxicity differences of methyl benzoate against various arthropod pests and nontarget organisms: Mortality data from 1% MBe concentration after 48 h of exposure. The image was adapted from Feng and Zhang (licensed under CC BY 4.0), Mostafiz et al., and Zhu et al. (licensed under CC BY 4.0) [14,46,47,48,81,82].
Agriculture 12 00378 g002
Table 1. Contact toxicity of methyl benzoate for major pests and predators with LC50 values.
Table 1. Contact toxicity of methyl benzoate for major pests and predators with LC50 values.
GroupsSpeciesDevelopmental StagesLC50UnitsReferences
PestsHalyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)Egg0.02mg/cm2Feng and Zhang [14]
1st-instar nymph1.03μL/vial
2nd-instar nymph1.01μL/vial
3rd-instar nymph1.23μL/vial
4th-instar nymph2.39μL/vial
5th-instar nymph1.77μL/vial
Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)Egg0.3%Mostafiz et al. [81]
4th-instar nymph0.2%
Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae)3rd-instar nymph0.18%Mostafiz et al. [48]
Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae)Egg0.015mg/cm2Feng and Zhang [14]
Plutellaxylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)Egg0.001mg/cm2
Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Erebidae)Larvae0.114mg/cm2Feng et al. [13]
Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae)Larvae1%Feng and Zhang [14]
Tetranychus urticae (Trombidiformes: Tetranychidae)Egg0.27%Mostafiz et al. [82]
Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)Worker93.65μg/antChen et al. [86]
Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)Adult44.81μg/beetlePark et al. [83]
Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)Adult45.6μg/mosquitoLarson et al. [87]
Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)4th-instar larvae61ppmMostafiz et al. [88]
Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae)4th-instar larvae185ppm
PredatorsChrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)1st-instar larvae>1%Mostafiz et al. [48]
2nd-instar larvae>1%
Nesidiocoris tenuis (Hemiptera: Miridae)Adult>1%Mostafiz et al. [47]
Table 2. Fumigation toxicity of methyl benzoate to different stored product pests with LC50 values.
Table 2. Fumigation toxicity of methyl benzoate to different stored product pests with LC50 values.
SpeciesDevelopmental StagesLC50UnitsReferences
Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)Adult5.36mg/LPark et al. [83]
Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae)Adult<1080mg/LMorrison et al. [99]
Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)Adult<1080mg/LMorrison et al. [99]
Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)Adult<1080mg/LMorrison et al. [99]
Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)Adult--Yang et al. [101]
Trogoderma variabile (Coleoptera: Dermestidae)Larvae>1080mg/LMorrison et al. [99]
Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)Adult0.1μL/LMostafiz et al. [102]
Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)Larva and adult--Yang et al. [101]
Nasonovia ribisnigri (Hemiptera: Aphididae)Nymph and adult--Yang et al. [101]
Rhizoglyphus spp. (Sarcoptiformes: Acaridae)Adult Yang et al. [101]
Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)Worker0.77μg/mLChen et al. [86]
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Share and Cite

MDPI and ACS Style

Mostafiz, M.M.; Hassan, E.; Lee, K.-Y. Methyl Benzoate as a Promising, Environmentally Safe Insecticide: Current Status and Future Perspectives. Agriculture 2022, 12, 378.

AMA Style

Mostafiz MM, Hassan E, Lee K-Y. Methyl Benzoate as a Promising, Environmentally Safe Insecticide: Current Status and Future Perspectives. Agriculture. 2022; 12(3):378.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mostafiz, Md. Munir, Errol Hassan, and Kyeong-Yeoll Lee. 2022. "Methyl Benzoate as a Promising, Environmentally Safe Insecticide: Current Status and Future Perspectives" Agriculture 12, no. 3: 378.

Note that from the first issue of 2016, this journal uses article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Back to TopTop