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Induced Polyploidy: A Tool for Forage Species Improvement

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Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Sargodha 40100, Pakistan
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Department of Plant Breeding, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sundsvagen 10 Box 101, SE 23053 Alnarp, Sweden
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Texas A&M AgriLife Research, Texas A&M University, P.O. Box 1658, Vernon, TX 76385, USA
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Department of General Biology, Federal University of Viçosa, Viçosa MG 36.570-900, Brazil
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Institute of Biotechnology and Plant Breeding, MSN-University of Agriculture, Multan 59920, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ioannis Tokatlidis
Agriculture 2021, 11(3), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11030210
Received: 5 January 2021 / Revised: 20 February 2021 / Accepted: 28 February 2021 / Published: 4 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Genotype Evaluation and Breeding)
Polyploidy means having more than two basic sets of chromosomes. Polyploid plants may be artificially obtained through chemical, physical and biological (2n gametes) methods. This approach allows an increased gene scope and expression, thus resulting in phenotypic changes such as yield and product quality. Nonetheless, breeding new cultivars through induced polyploidy should overcome deleterious effects that are partly contributed by genome and epigenome instability after polyploidization. Furthermore, shortening the time required from early chromosome set doubling to the final selection of high yielding superior polyploids is a must. Despite these hurdles, plant breeders have successfully obtained polyploid bred-germplasm in broad range of forages after optimizing methods, concentration and time, particularly when using colchicine. These experimental polyploids are a valuable tool for understanding gene expression, which seems to be driven by dosage dependent gene expression, altered gene regulation and epigenetic changes. Isozymes and DNA-based markers facilitated the identification of rare alleles for particular loci when compared with diploids, and also explained their heterozygosity, phenotypic plasticity and adaptability to diverse environments. Experimentally induced polyploid germplasm could enhance fresh herbage yield and quality, e.g., leaf protein content, leaf total soluble solids, water soluble carbohydrates and sucrose content. Offspring of experimentally obtained hybrids should undergo selection for several generations to improve their performance and stability. View Full-Text
Keywords: amphiploidy; disomic polyploidy; synthetic polyploidy; plant genome evolution; polysomic polyploidy amphiploidy; disomic polyploidy; synthetic polyploidy; plant genome evolution; polysomic polyploidy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rauf, S.; Ortiz, R.; Malinowski, D.P.; Clarindo, W.R.; Kainat, W.; Shehzad, M.; Waheed, U.; Hassan, S.W. Induced Polyploidy: A Tool for Forage Species Improvement. Agriculture 2021, 11, 210. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11030210

AMA Style

Rauf S, Ortiz R, Malinowski DP, Clarindo WR, Kainat W, Shehzad M, Waheed U, Hassan SW. Induced Polyploidy: A Tool for Forage Species Improvement. Agriculture. 2021; 11(3):210. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11030210

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rauf, Saeed, Rodomiro Ortiz, Dariusz P. Malinowski, Wellington R. Clarindo, Wardah Kainat, Muhammad Shehzad, Ummara Waheed, and Syed W. Hassan. 2021. "Induced Polyploidy: A Tool for Forage Species Improvement" Agriculture 11, no. 3: 210. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11030210

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